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Why does time pass? | The Economist
 
10:30
The equations of physics suggest time should be able to go backwards as well as forwards. Experience suggests, though, that it cannot. Why? And is time travel really possible? Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Why does time pass? It is a question so profound that few people would even think to ask it. Yet its effects are all around. Human beings live in a perpetual present, inexorably sealed off from the past, but moving relentlessly into the future. For most people, time seems to be something that is just out there. A thing ticking away in the background - fixed, immutable. Time seems to go in one direction and in one direction only. But physicists see it much differently. One of the great minds who changed the way science thinks about time was Albert Einstein. In 1905 he published his special theory of relativity. In it he demonstrated that time passes differently in different places depending on how those places are moving with respect to one another. Einstein showed that the faster one travels the slower time goes for the traveler. At the speeds at which humans move this is imperceptible. But for someone traveling on a spaceship at speeds close to that of light, time would slow down compared with its passage for people on earth. There was another important aspect of Einstein's theory which he didn't even realize when he published it. That time was woven into the very fabric of space itself. Einstein used this insight to help develop his general theory of relativity which incorporated gravity. He published it in 1915. With the general theory of relativity he demonstrated that massive objects warped the fabric of space-time. It is this curvature that causes time to slow down near them. Time slows down in proportion to the gravitational pull of a nearby object so the effect would be strong near a black hole but milder near the earth. But even here it can be detected. Einstein's theories had to be taken into account when the GPS system was set up otherwise it would have been inaccurate. One scientist who puzzled over the directionality of time was Arthur Eddington, a 20th century astronomer who defined the concept of the arrow of time, based on observations made by the 19th century physicist Ludwig Boltzmann. The arrow of time is based on the second law of thermodynamics which says the disorder known as entropy increases with time. For example, a building left untouched will slowly decay into its surroundings. It will disintegrate into a more chaotic state but it is highly unlikely that the building will become more orderly over time - this is because there are many more ways for a system to be disorderly than orderly. There can be many ways for something to break for instance but only one way for it to be put back together again. A system will be less disordered in the past and more disordered in the future. This is the arrow of time. So how can the arrow of time be reconciled with Einstein's equations? If time can go forwards and backwards according to relativity does that mean it's possible to go backwards in time? The theory of relativity does allow time travel to the future. Einstein's theories do allow for the formation of wormholes in space. These are shortcuts that link otherwise distant places in the space-time continuum. Although wormholes are theoretically possible they're a highly implausible proposition. That's because the equations suggest enormous masses and energies would be required to create and manipulate one. What remains then is a mystery. Theory fails to forbid traveling backwards in time but practice suggests it might just as well be forbidden. For now it would appear the arrow of time cannot be reversed. No one knows why time passes but it seems that no matter how people look at it, it goes in one direction in one direction only. Check out Economist Films: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Read our Tumblr: http://theeconomist.tumblr.com/ Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Check out our Pinterest: https://uk.pinterest.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6
Views: 2258751 The Economist
Singapore's Economic Success | The Economist
 
02:13
When it started life as an independent, separate country in 1965, Singapore’s prospects did not look good. Tiny and underdeveloped, it had no natural resources and a population of relatively recent immigrants with little shared history. The country’s first prime minister, the late Lee Kuan Yew is credited with transforming it. He called one volume of his memoirs, “From Third World to First”. Why did Singapore become an economic success? First, its strategic location and natural harbour helped. It is at the mouth of the Malacca Strait, through which perhaps 40% of world maritime trade passes. It was an important trading post in the 14th century, and again from the 19th, when British diplomat Sir Stamford Raffles founded the modern city. Now it is at the heart of one of the world’s most dynamic regions. Under Mr Lee, Singapore made the most of these advantages. Second, under Mr Lee, Singapore welcomed foreign trade and investment. Multinationals found Singapore a natural hub and were encouraged to expand and prosper. Third, the government was kept small, efficient and honest—qualities absent in most of Singapore’s neighbours. It regularly tops surveys for the ease of doing business. But the island city is not ideal. Although clean and orderly, it has harsh judicial punishments, a tame press and illiberal social policies. Homosexual acts, for example, remain illegal. Protest demonstrations are rarely permitted. Mr Lee saw his authoritarian style of government as an essential ingredient in Singapore’s success, emphasizing the island’s vulnerability in a potentially hostile neighbourhood. But younger people now question whether Singapore really is that fragile, and resent the restrictions on their freedom.
Views: 201090 The Economist
Why London is the most expensive city to build in | The Economist
 
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Oddly-shaped buildings and unexploded bombs are two reasons it costs more to build in London than any other city. For more video content from The Economist visit our website: http://econ.st/1qe7c8l Subscribe NOW to The Economist: http://econ.st/1Fsu2Vj Get more The Economist Follow us: https://twitter.com/TheEconomist Like us: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist View photos: https://instagram.com/theeconomist/ The Economist videos give authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
Views: 559003 The Economist
Do we live in a multiverse? | The Economist
 
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It has long been thought that our universe is all there is, but it is possible we may live in just one of many. This is the second in our six-part series on unsolved mysteries in science. Read the accompanying article: http://www.economist.com/news/science-brief/21660968-our-second-brief-scientific-mysteries-we-ask-whether-world-might-make-more-sense. Subscribe NOW to The Economist: http://econ.st/1Fsu2Vj When the ancients looked into the night sky they thought the heavens revolved around the earth and mankind. over the centuries this view has changed radically. We discovered we lived on a planet orbiting a star within the solar system and the solar system was found to be part of the Milky Way galaxy. Later we learned that our universe was filled with billions of other such galaxies - but could it be that we're committing the same error as our ancestors by thinking the universe contains everything there is? Could it be that we live in a multiverse? There are a number of different theories about what the multiverse could be. One proponent of the idea of the multiverse is Dr Tegmark of MIT. Dr Tegmark suggests a four fold classification of possible types of multiverse. The first type of multiverse is just an extension of what we already know our universe expanding into infinity rather than ending at the limits of our vision. We can look back almost to the beginning of time to the edge of the observable universe, but we can see no further. So the space beyond that distance known as the Hubble radius is literally out of sight. But that doesn't mean there isn't anything there. Because the expansion of the universe has stretched space, astronomers are able to see out to a distance of about 42 billion light years. How far things extend beyond this is unknown. If they stretch to infinity there could be numerous isolated universes cut off from one another by their own Hubble radius - depending on the observers vantage point. To understand the second type of multiverse in Dr Tegmark system it is first necessary to understand how the universe was formed and the theory of inflation. It was first conceived of by Alan Guth in 1979 and then later refined and expanded upon by Andrei Linde who had some key insights. This is one of the ideas of string theory which attempts to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics. The thinking is that all of the solutions produced by string theory that don't match up with what we can see in our own universe, may actually represent reality in other universes. The anthropic principle is the idea that our universe is fine-tuned to allow humans to live. A small fiddle with the strength of gravity for example and life as we know it would not exist - a coincidence that does not sit easily with scientists. The concept of a multiverse neatly addresses this problem within the infinite number of universes that could exist we are simply living in the one we are able to. In the third type Dr Tegmark multiverse in the first the laws of physics are the same from one to another. In this type though the component universes are separated not by distance but by time. At every moment within such a multiverse all of the possible futures allowed by the uncertainties of quantum mechanics actually happen. In the many worlds theory of the multiverse the entirety of the universe acts like the quantum photon, but instead of having two potential future states, every possible outcome would be manifested so our entire universe and everything within it, including you, would be constantly undergoing multiple visions into daughter universes - each with its own reality and future. Any given observer though would only see one outcome. In the final classification, the level 4 multiverse, Dr Tegmark proposes that all coherent mathematical systems describe a physical reality of some sort. Those different systems are of necessity different universes. What this last idea translates to in practice is hard to conceive of - it is more the province of metaphysics than physics, but the other three types of multiverse though they push the bounds of physical theory do not overstep them. Observational data supporting the theory of inflation have convinced some scientists that a multiverse is possible - but the idea is still controversial. It may be impossible to ever directly observe the multiverse but some scientists hope to eventually gather enough data supporting the theories that predict it to one day confirm its existence. If that were to happen, like the ancients before us, we would be given a whole new perspective on how the cosmos works and on our place in it. Get more The Economist Follow us: https://twitter.com/TheEconomist Like us: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist View photos: https://instagram.com/theeconomist/ The Economist videos give authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
Views: 769807 The Economist
A potential cure for HIV | The Economist
 
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Scientists have developed a therapeutic vaccine for HIV which has the potential to create a functional cure for the disease. Here's how it works. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Have doctors found a cure for HIV? Since 1981 the AIDS epidemic has killed around 35 million people. Up until now HIV antiretroviral drugs have been the only way to control the disease. But they create their own problems as antiretrovirals can cost around $10,000 a year. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 177321 The Economist
How pacemakers work | The Economist
 
02:53
How pacemakers work. Animated explanation of the mechanics of the human heart, and the devices that can assist it Subscribe NOW to The Economist: http://econ.st/1Fsu2Vj Implantable pacemakers and defibrillators are devices that apply electric shocks to maintain the rhythm of the heart and, if necessary, restart it. As the technology improves and the list of treatable conditions grows, the number of devices being implanted is increasing steadily and now exceeds half a million a year. The heart is made up of four chambers; two atria and two ventricles. On each side the atrium is connected to the ventricle by a one-way valve. Blood is pumped as these chambers contract and relax in turn. The beating of a healthy heart is regulated by electrical impulses. The sequence begins as the atria fill with deoxygenated blood from the body on the right and oxygenated blood from the lungs on the left. An electrical signal from the sinoatrial node then causes the atria to contract, forcing blood into the ventricles. The electrical signal is then picked up by the atrioventricular node and directed into the Purkinje fibers in the ventricle walls, causing the ventricles to contract, and the blood is then pumped through the pulmonary valve on the right to the lungs, and the aortic valve on the left to the rest of the body. These valves close and the cycle then restarts. When the sinoatrial node fails to function correctly an artificial pacemaker can be fitted to help regulate the heartbeat with small evenly timed electric shocks. This involves implanting electrodes into one or more of the heart's chambers, by inserting leads into a vein near the collarbone and implanting a device called the generator just under the skin. For more severe heart conditions an implantable defibrillator or ICD can be used which is also capable of sensing a stopped heart and delivering an electric shock powerful enough to restart it. For some conditions an even more sophisticated device called a CRT ICD can be implanted. This uses a third lead inserted into the left ventricle to resynchronize the ventricles when necessary. However, all these leads can cause problems of their own. Patients with ICDs have a 20% chance of a lead failure within 10 years and replacing leads can require open-heart surgery in about 2% of cases. This has resulted in several efforts to develop new pacemakers that do not depend on leads inside the heart. One design, the subcutaneous ICD, places the lead just outside the heart under the patient's skin. And wireless designs are now being developed that may eventually do away with the need for leads altogether. Get more The Economist Follow us: https://twitter.com/TheEconomist Like us: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist View photos: https://instagram.com/theeconomist/ The Economist videos give authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
Views: 371843 The Economist
Why solar power is spreading so fast in Africa | The Economist
 
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Africans have been waiting for decades for the mains electricity which the rich world takes for granted. Sub-Saharan Africa’s 910m people consume less electricity each year than the 4.8m people of Alabama. Many more who are on the grid suffer brown-outs and dangerous surges in current. But a solar revolution is afoot. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.st/2F8I0jB In 2009 just 1% of sub-Saharan Africans used solar lighting. Now it is nearly 5% or 11m people. The International Energy Agency, a Paris-based government think-tank, reckons that 500m more people will have solar electricity by 2030, Why is solar power spreading so fast in Africa? There are three main reasons. First, solar panel technology has improved. Efficiency gains and mass production mean that modern photovoltaic panels have plunged in price per watt – to around 30 cents. Second, low-energy bulbs have got better and cheaper. Modern solar lamps cost as little as $8—they charge by day and give light by night. They replace costly and dangerous alternatives - Africans waste $10 billion a year on kerosene. Even worse are candles, open fires—or darkness, which hurts productivity and encourages crime. The third, crucial development is in storage, as lamps are needed at night and solar power is collected in the daytime. Old nickel cadmium batteries wore out after 500 recharges; lithium-based ones can manage 2,000 and store much more electricity Additionally, solar power is increasingly well-financed in Africa. Aid donors are sponsoring more ambitious projects – specially designed fridges and televisions, for example. Bigger solar systems can run a school or clinic, a grain mill or irrigation pump, or even a whole village. Some dismiss solar as a second-best solution. But conventional, centralised electrical grids have proved unreliable and inefficient in the past -- and solar is much better than nothing. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://econ.st/2F6DWQL Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: http://econ.st/2F7ejiJ Follow The Economist on Twitter: http://econ.st/2F6SsIo Follow us on Instagram: http://econ.st/2F9Xsfc Follow us on Medium: http://econ.st/2F9NWck
Views: 66422 The Economist
Where does your phone come from? | The Economist
 
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Apple is expected to announce its latest handset—the iPhone XS. Like all smartphones it will contain more than 70 chemical elements, which are mined from the Earth's crust in countries all over the world. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: https://econ.st/2xvTKdy The number of smartphone users globally is set to reach 2.5 billion by 2019. Around a third of the world's population will own one. Smartphones touch every element of our lives but did you know that they also connect nearly every element on the planet. In fact of the 118 elements on the periodic table 75 can be found inside a smartphone. These raw materials are extracted from the ground and shipped to refineries and factories in a truly global supply chain. Silicon, one of the most common elements in the Earth's crust, is used to make the billions of transistors in the chips that power your phone. Gold is used for electrical wiring, about 0.03g of it in each iPhone. Indium, another metal, is used to make touchscreens. But when it comes to batteries, lithium is one really key components and this element is only mined in a handful of countries. Until recently, Chile used to produce the most lithium but now Australia has the biggest market share. The Democratic Republic of Congo, a dangerously unstable country with a poor human rights record, produces more than half the world's cobalt, another crucial element in smartphone batteries. Smartphone makers are under pressure to ensure their cobalt is responsibly sourced. About 80% of the cobalt used in batteries is refined in China. Many so-called rare earth elements are also used in smartphones. In the screen, the speaker, and the motor that makes your phone vibrate. About 85% of rare earth elements are produced in China. Despite their name rare earth elements are not particularly rare but they are hard to extract without producing toxic and radioactive byproducts. Many of the elements used in smartphones are finite resources and have no functional substitutes. Rather than digging in the ground for the elements needed for new handsets it makes sense to extract them from old phones - but only about 10% of handsets are recycled now. So recycle your phone if you get a new one this year. Why? It is you might say, Elementary. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 48997 The Economist
Cocaine: why the cartels are winning | The Economist
 
02:47
America spends $40bn a year on the war on drugs. But its “zero tolerance” approach has done little to curb addiction or overdose rates, which are the highest in the world. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: https://econ.st/2xvTKdy Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: https://econ.st/2MFURxs Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://econ.st/2ML6TFY Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://econ.st/2ML6Ud0 Follow us on Instagram: https://econ.st/2ML6PWK Follow us on Medium: https://econ.st/2ML6Wl8
Views: 253169 The Economist
Japan's Yakuza: Inside the syndicate | The Economist
 
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In 2011 a Belgian photographer was allowed entry into one of Japan’s Yakuza families. Over two years, he captured the lives of those living in the underworld. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Japan's Yakuza: Inside the syndicate. With at least 50,000 members, Japan's Yakuza gangs form one of the world's largest criminal networks. Anton Kusters, a Belgian photographer, was allowed a rare glimpse inside a Yakuza family in early 2009. He documented the family for two years. The Ya-Ku-Za means 8-9-3, a losing combination in a card game similar to Blackjack. The exact origins of the Yakuza are unclear, but they are thought to have descended from masterless samurai in the early 17th century. In the 18th century, these poor, landless bandits began grouping together, creating families. The family Anton spent time with controls Kabukicho, Tokyo's red-light district; its business is largely prostitution. Other Yakuza criminal operations include drug trafficking, money laundering, gambling and bribery. The Yamaguchi-gumi is Japan's largest organised-crime group. By one estimate, its revenue in 2014 was $80bn. In 2013, Italy's 'Ndrangheta mafia has a turnover of around $69bn. In February 2011, towards the end of the project, Anton was at home in Europe, when he received a call from the Yakuza family. Miyamoto-san, a high ranking Yakuza boss, was in hospital after suffering a stroke. Anton returned, and was invited to attend the prominent Yakuza boss' funeral. Check out Economist Films: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Read our Tumblr: http://theeconomist.tumblr.com/ Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Check out our Pinterest: https://uk.pinterest.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6
Views: 3287555 The Economist
Where is the world's most liveable city? | The Economist
 
02:56
Where is the world's most liveable city? The Economist Intelligence Unit has ranked 140 cities based on their liveability. Melbourne, Australia, has been ranked the world's most liveable city for the past seven years but it has lost the top spot to Vienna. See the full report: eiu.com/liveability Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 105067 The Economist
What is consciousness? | The Economist
 
12:42
Understanding what consciousness is, and why and how it evolved, is perhaps the greatest mystery known to science. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Check out Economist Films: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Read our Tumblr: http://theeconomist.tumblr.com/ Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Check out our Pinterest: https://uk.pinterest.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6
Views: 751807 The Economist
What could threaten Amazon’s empire? | The Economist
 
02:30
Amazon accounts for more than half of every dollar spent online in America and is the world's leading provider of cloud computing. But can the company avoid the attention of the regulators? Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 This week we put Amazon on the cover. Amazon is a remarkable company but what's extraordinary about it is the scale of its ambitions. Its shareholders expect it to grow faster for longer than any big company in modern business history and we asked whether it can do so. More than half of every new online dollar that's spent in America goes to Amazon. It's already the world's biggest cloud computing firm; it's set to spend more on TV investments than HBO, a big cable channel, next year. Amazon's success is built on two things in particular. One is its willingness to think about the long term - in an era when chief executives complain about the pressure to deliver results on a quarterly basis, Jeff Bezos, Amazon's founder and chief executive, thinks in terms of years and decades. It's expressly been part of its business model to take the cash that it earns and to invest it in order to take advantage of what it calls network effect, the idea is that more users you attract to its e-commerce site the more attractive it is to other retailers and therefore the more users come on to the site. Its bet is that if you invest hard for the long term the rewards will be enormous. The other thing that distinguishes Amazon is the span of its activities. It's no longer right to think about Amazon as a retailer. In its filings it lists as competitors everyone from media companies to food manufacturers, social networks to logistics firms. It is a conglomerate that spreads across all commerce. The amazing thing about Amazon is that it could well achieve investors expectations for it, but if it does then it could run into a problem, and that problem is the regulators. At the moment antitrust enforcers don't particularly worry about Amazon. It's not even the biggest retailer in America, it's most mature market. But if it gets as big as shareholders expect it to then they may start to look at it and not just because of antitrust rules but also because it will become a kind of utility for commerce. Lots of competitors will rely on it for services. Renting warehouses, for example, paying for goods, and that dependence on Amazon could be a reason for the government to look at it more closely and with that it's business maybe threatened. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films every day of the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 56710 The Economist
Space tourism will lift-off in 2018 | The Economist
 
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Space tourism will take-off in 2018. As the race between spaceflight companies Virgin Galactic and SpaceX heats up, those who can afford it will be able to travel to low Earth orbit and possibly even around the moon. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.st/2he5ZAb In late 2018, tourists will be heading into space and there is a race on to get them there. Virgin Galactic will at last take paying customers beyond the stratosphere. But their efforts might be eclipsed by SpaceX, a company planning to send two tourists around the Moon. Taking them farther into space than any human since 1972. There is a new breed of would-be astronauts for whom the sky is no limit. But it is not in everyone's reach. Multi-millionaire entrepreneur, Per Wimmer will be one of the first tourists to go into space with private company, Virgin Galactic. If it all goes to plan, in 2018, Virgin Galactic will launch Mr Wimmer to the edge of the atmosphere where he'll be able to look back down on Earth. But Elon Musk's aerospace company, SpaceX, plans to go one step further on a flyby loop around the Moon. Only 24 astronauts have ever made the almost 240,000-mile voyage to Earth's nearest neighbour. In 2018, two paying customers could be the first humans to venture that far into space for over 40 years. But this mission is shrouded in mystery. There are serious doubts whether these ambitious targets can be reached in 2018. SpaceX has yet to carry out fundamental tests on the launcher. But if these missions do go ahead, they'll be dangerous ventures. 18 people have died in spaceflight. One of Virgin Galactic's own test pilots lost his life in training in 2014. This boom in the commercial space industry marks a new era in space travel. Opening space up to the masses may have an impact on the way humans see the Earth itself. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://econ.st/2hcM9p3 Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: http://econ.st/2hdvS39 Follow The Economist on Twitter: http://econ.st/2hfW6Cp Follow us on Instagram: http://econ.st/2he60Ef Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: http://econ.st/2hfnqjW
Views: 205450 The Economist
Obesity: not just a rich-world problem | The Economist
 
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Obesity is a global problem, but more people are getting fatter in developing countries than anywhere else. If current trends continue, obese children will soon outnumber those who are undernourished. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.st/2rAAQPL People are fatter than ever. Obesity has more than doubled since 1980. But the biggest rise is in the developing world. Anyone with a body mass index, or BMI, over 30 is considered obese. The higher your BMI, the greater your risk of developing weight-related diseases like diabetes and heart disease. Nearly half of the world’s overweight and obese children under five years old, live in Asia. And in Africa, the number of overweight children under five has increased by nearly 50% since 2000. Hunger still blights many parts of the world. But the share of people who do not have enough to eat is in decline. Globally one in nine people in the world suffer from chronic undernourishment. One in ten are obese. If current trends continue, the share of obese children in the world will surpass the number of undernourished by 2022. Africa has the fastest-growing middle class in the world. A move from traditional foods to high-calorie fast food and a more sedentary lifestyle is driving the rise in obesity. Fast food outlets like KFC and McDonalds have seen rapid growth on the continent. Women appear to be most affected. More than half of women in Botswana are overweight. Ethiopia known for its terrible famine, has seen obesity rates in women rise by 600% since 1984. Health systems in Africa, more focused on treating malnourishment and diseases like malaria and HIV, are ill equipped to deal with obesity-related illnesses like heart disease and diabetes. Pacific islands have the highest obesity rates in the world, thanks to the spread of western fast food. Diets which a generation ago consisted of fish and coconuts are now dominated by processed meat. Nauru is top of the list. 61% of the population are obese, making this tiny paradise island the world’s fattest nation. Cook Islands take second place, with an obesity rate of 56% and Marshall Islands come in third, with 53%. The Middle East is also in the grip of an obesity crisis. In the Saudi Arabia and Qatar and Kuwait more than a third of the population is obese. Obesity is already a global epidemic and is rapidly spreading from the rich world to the poor. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://econ.st/2rAhytv Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: http://econ.st/2rxBQ7e Follow The Economist on Twitter: http://econ.st/2rAARmN Follow us on Instagram: http://econ.st/2rFj260 Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: http://econ.st/2rAASHn
Views: 44792 The Economist
Italy's divisions | The Economist
 
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150 years after its unification, Italy remains riven by regional differences Subscribe NOW to The Economist: http://econ.st/1Fsu2Vj Get more The Economist Follow us: https://twitter.com/TheEconomist Like us: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist View photos: https://instagram.com/theeconomist/ The Economist videos give authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
Views: 65393 The Economist
The World in 2015: Global population and the changing shape of world demographics
 
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Animating the changing shape of the world population pyramid. For more multimedia content from The Economist visit our website: http://econ.st/1xqEZhX.
Views: 176777 The Economist
Congo: the deadliest country in the world | The Economist
 
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More people were killed in a recent civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo than in conflicts in Vietnam, Syria, Iraq and Korea combined. The African country may be sliding back in to war, but one man is hoping a message of peace can overcome violence. WARNING: this film contains distressing images. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: https://econ.st/2xvTKdy It's one of the deadliest countries on the planet - wracked for decades by civil war, rape, murder, and genocide. Now the Democratic Republic of Congo is in the midst of another crisis and potentially another civil war. But one group of young people is taking a stand - not with weapons but with a message of peace. Fred Bauma risks his life every day campaigning for peace in the DRC, a country that has little concept of peace. Between 1998 and 2003 a brutal civil war tore the country apart, killing up to five million people. That's more than were killed in Syria, Iraq, Vietnam, and Korea combined. Sitting on vast mineral wealth and situated at the heart of the continent, the DRC could be the crossroads of Africa - if it were peaceful and functional. But the country remains extremely undeveloped. Only one in seven earned more than $1.25 a day. Life expectancy is just 60 years. The dictator President Joseph Kabila is standing down after almost 20 years and the battle for who succeeds him is underway. The election due to be held in December will undoubtedly be an unfair fight and could push the country back to Civil War. The favourites to replace Mr. Kabila could be as bad for the country as the current dictator. Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary is from the same party as Mr Kabila and is seen as a potential puppet for the president. His likely opponent is Jean-Pierre Bemba, a warlord, former vice president and rebel leader who served 10 years in prison in The Hague for war crimes - a sentence that was recently overturned. Neither candidate is likely to bring peace to the country. Mr. Bauma is a member of Lucha, a youth group that does not engage in politics but protests against the government's failure to provide services. In the face of mounting violence, Lucha's peaceful protests provide an alternative to the bloodshed that has plagued the country for decades. Fred's fear is real. One of his colleagues Luc Nkulula was burnt alive in a house fire that was allegedly started by government forces. If Congo could find stability then the whole of Africa would benefit however it is unlikely that a presidential election will bring about real change. It is a risky moment for this fragile country. There's a real chance that the country could fall back into civil war and millions more could die. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 65654 The Economist
The changing face of tourism | The Economist
 
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Tourism is one of the biggest industries in the world—and it's rapidly changing. Chinese travellers have overtaken Americans as the biggest spenders and nearly all regions are welcoming more tourists. Except one. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: https://econ.st/2xvTKdy Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: https://econ.st/2v5Oqtz Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://econ.st/2v5g0XV Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://econ.st/2v5Os4F Follow us on Instagram: https://econ.st/2v3KXLZ Follow us on Medium: https://econ.st/2v1nLOm
Views: 71876 The Economist
Why Japan's conviction rate is 99% | The Economist
 
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In Japan, crime rates are low and the state incarcerates far fewer people than in other rich countries. But when people are accused of a crime they are almost always convicted. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Japan is a remarkably safe society. Crime rates are low and the state incarcerates far fewer people than in other rich countries. The emphasis is on rehabilitation Check out Economist Films: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Read our Tumblr: http://theeconomist.tumblr.com/ Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Check out our Pinterest: https://uk.pinterest.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6
Views: 1075135 The Economist
China: The largest migration in history | The Economist
 
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An animated infographic about China's migrant workers. Migration from inland villages to coastal cities has transformed China. Now that is changing, as regional cities inland become the new focus of migration patterns. Subscribe NOW to The Economist: http://econ.st/1Fsu2Vj Since 1978 China has experienced the largest internal migration in human history. Nearly 160 million people - that's almost 12% of today's population - have left rural areas to seek work in the cities. The motivation to move was obvious. In 1978 everyone was poor, and rural incomes were less than 40% of urban ones. Suddenly Communist China threw open its doors and factories appeared in coastal towns, where farmers could make more money in a month than in a year growing rice. Migrants moved from the poorest inland provinces such as Guizhou, Sichuan and Anhui. In 1980 farmers here lived on less than $2 a day. According to Kam Wing Chan at the University of Washington, more than 10 million workers migrated out of their home province between 1990 and 1995. Another 32 million migrated from 1995 to 2000 and yet another 38 million over the next five years. By 2011 nearly 160 million rural Chinese were working far from home. Between 2001 and 2010 migration contributed nearly 20 percent of China's economic growth but it has all come at a personal cost - many migrants spend years away from their family. Industrialization has also caused a terrible pollution problem but many feel the huge personal and national economic impact have made it worthwhile. In the 1990s the wealth gap between rural and urban China opened wide- though the gap has closed a little, this is still a huge social issue with tens of thousands of cases of rural unrest each year. The city of Shenzhen, just over the border from Hong Kong, is a classic example of the speed at which Chinese cities have grown. Shenzhen has sprawled from a town of a few thousand in 1978 to a city of 12 million people in 2010 and it's set to keep on growing. The EIU forecasts that the population will hit 15 million by 2020. In just over 30 years the GDP of coastal provinces such as Guangdong, where Shenzhen is located, has shot up. Two other coastal provinces Zhejiang and Jiangsu in 2010 had the same GDP as Austria and Switzerland respectively. Now though, as the cost of labor and land near the coast has risen, Manufacturing is moving inland and fewer migrants are travelling to the coastal cities. As more jobs are created in inland cities and provinces more wealth is trickling down to rural areas too. Get more The Economist Follow us: https://twitter.com/TheEconomist Like us: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist View photos: https://instagram.com/theeconomist/ The Economist videos give authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
Views: 220762 The Economist
Why London took so long to become a 24-hour city
 
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Compared with 24-hour cities such as New York and Berlin, London shuts up shop early. The reasons go back a long way. London has a history of mass commuting; many workers preferred to meet friends for happy hour drinks than party into the wee hours. Britain’s old licensing laws meant that most drinking dens closed at around 11pm, and the tube stops running shortly after midnight. Getting home late at night is expensive or time consuming. And for years, London’s population was in steady decline. But times are changing. These days nocturnal Londoners can go to a fancy restaurant, work out at a gym and even get a haircut all through the night. Liberal licensing regulations arrived a decade ago, making it easier for people to indulge in late-night drinking. Between 1999 and 2013 the number of night-bus routes doubled, and the annual number of passengers more than tripled. And from next September, the London Underground is set to run through the night at weekends. So, why is this happening? Demography is a factor. Since 1991 the number of young people in London–those most likely to demand late-night options–has risen faster than any other group. Foreigners used to late-night merrymaking make up a greater proportion of London’s residents. And an increasing share of the workforce do nightshifts; half of all night-bus passengers are travelling to or from work. The demand for a late-night London is growing, and businesses and legislators are responding to it. With infrastructure planned to make a 24-hour London possible, why would Londoners ever sleep? For more multimedia content from The Economist visit our website: http://econ.st/1sR83R1
Views: 32265 The Economist
Can extreme poverty ever be eradicated? | The Economist
 
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Poverty rates have fallen faster in the past 30 years than at any other time on record. The UN wants extreme poverty to disappear by 2030. We assess the data to see if this is achievable. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.st/2AfBchr It is estimated that somebody escapes extreme poverty every 1.2 seconds. According to the World Bank, anyone on less than $1.90 per day is living in extreme poverty unable to afford basic food, clothing, healthcare and shelter. Absolute poverty rates have fallen faster in the past 30 years than in any other time on record. This is a remarkable achievement but the task of taking people put of the worst poverty remains a huge challenge. The impressive fall is the result of changes in just two countries, China and India. In the 1980s the majority of people in both of these countries were living in extreme poverty. But now the share of the poorest has fallen to 21% in India, and less than 2% in China. Increased productivity in farms and a mass migration from poor rural areas to the booming cities enabled many Chinese and Indian people to better their lives. Asia is moving into a new phase but can other parts of the world copy their model of moving people to factory jobs in cities? Today, more than half the world's poorest people live in sub-Saharan Africa. The percentage of the African population living in extreme poverty fell from 54% in 1990, to 41% in 2013. But in that same time period, the population of sub-Saharan Africa boomed meaning the total number of poor people rose from 276m to almost 400m. The population of sub-Saharan Africa is predicted to reach 2bn by 2050 and a large percentage of those people are likely to be extremely poor. And unlike Asia, a transformation of this region is unlikely to happen soon. Sub-Saharan Africa is urbanising faster than any other place on earth. But moving into the cities is not providing the same ladder out of poverty as it did in Asia. A lack of infrastructure, public transport, and essential services in many African cities prevents poor people from finding jobs and getting an education. The rapidly growing population only makes mater worse by putting further strain on resources. Millions of poor people in sub-Saharan Africa live far below the World Bank's threshold of $1.90 per day. That means it will be harder to pull them out of extreme poverty. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://econ.st/2AdErpF Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: http://econ.st/2AexPY4 Follow The Economist on Twitter: http://econ.st/2Af0pIv Follow us on Instagram: http://econ.st/2AdA4ut Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: http://econ.st/2AdXK26
Views: 41603 The Economist
Why Nations Fail: Daron Acemoglu interview | The Economist
 
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Why Nations Fail. An interview with Daron Acemoglu. From mercantile Venice to contemporary America, economic success or failure is rooted in the health of political institutions says the co-author of a new book Subscribe NOW to The Economist: http://econ.st/1Fsu2Vj Get more The Economist Follow us: https://twitter.com/TheEconomist Like us: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist View photos: https://instagram.com/theeconomist/ The Economist videos give authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
Views: 30403 The Economist
Why do languages die? | The Economist
 
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There are more than 7,000 languages. The number of people speaking English, Spanish and Mandarin continues to grow, but every fortnight a langauge will disappear forever. The Economist's language expert Lane Greene explains why. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: https://econ.st/2xvTKdy Irankarapte iishu Dydh Da I don't speak those languages. In fact very few people do. They're used only by a handful of people, and all those languages are in danger of extinction. There are more than 7,000 languages spoken in the world today but about 1/3 of those have fewer than 1000 speakers and according to UNESCO more than 40% of those languages are in danger of extinction. In fact every fortnight one of the world's languages disappears forever. When you say dead language many people think of Latin, but Latin actually never died it's been spoken continuously since the time of the Caesars, but it changed very gradually over 2,000 years until it became French, Spanish, and other Romance languages. True language death happens when communities switched to other languages and parents stopped raising their children to speak their old ones. Then the last elderly speaker dies the language is unlikely ever to be spoken fluently again. If you look at this chart which measures the world's languages in terms of their size and their state of health you can see that most languages are ranked in the middle. English like just a few other dominant languages is up at the top left hand corner it's in a really strong state but if your language is down here in the bottom right hand corner of the graph like Kayupulau from Indonesia or Kuruaya from Brazil you are in serious trouble. In the bad old days governments just banned languages they didn't like but sometimes the pressure is more subtle. Any teenager growing up in the Soviet Union soon realized that whatever language you spoke at home, mastering Russian was going to be the key to success. Citizens of China including Tibetans as well as speakers of Shanghainese or Cantonese face similar pressure today to focus on Mandarin. Once the language is gone well it usually goes the way of the dodo - just one language has ever come back from the dead - Hebrew. It was extinct for two millennia but Jewish settlers to Palestine in the early 20th centuries spoke different languages back in Europe and they adopted Hebrew on their arrival as their common language. It became Israel's official language when the country was fully established in 1948 and now has seven million speakers. Now Hebrew is the world's only fully revived language but others are trying. Cornish, spoken in southwestern England, died out two centuries ago but today there are several hundred speakers of the revived language. Practicality aside human diversity is a good thing in its own right. Imagine going on an exciting holiday only to find that the food, clothing, buildings, the people and yes the language was just the same as back home. Oliver Wendell Holmes put it well "every language is a temple in which the soul of those who speak it is enshrined". Moving that soul of the people from a temple into a museum just isn't the same thing. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 36190 The Economist
How to fuel the future | The Economist
 
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America, under President Donald Trump, is securing its “energy independence” with oil and gas. But unlike fossil fuels, renewables will not increase global warming —and China is moving fast. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: https://econ.st/2xvTKdy Oil moves the world around and creates powerful countries. Oil is such a vital commodity that it provoked wars throughout the 20th century. The few countries that produce it, try to keep control of it to ensure its riches stay at home. Those who do not have it, strive to get it. In the 1930s Saudi Arabia was one of the poorest countries in the world but the discovery of oil transformed it and Saudi Arabia has amassed $515.6 billion in sovereign wealth funds. It has become the linchpin of a powerful cartel that sometimes rations oil to push up prices. The United States is now the biggest producer of oil and gas owing to its shale revolution. It has tapped abundant reserves through fracking - a technology that uses high-pressure water and sand to fracture rock deep below the ground to extract hydrocarbons. This shale revolution has helped the United States become less dependent on oil imported from Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Iraq, and other OPEC countries. More oil and gas on global markets has also benefited the world's energy consumers by pushing down costs. Oil still remains the primary fuel, supplying almost 1/3 of the world's energy but its heyday may soon be over, despite growing demand. By 2040 the world's global energy use is set to increase by 30 percent. That energy must be much cleaner if the world wants to prevent catastrophic global warming. In the past coal and gas were less expensive than renewable technology but their costs have come down dramatically. There is now a race among some nations to create more efficient renewable technologies to reduce pollution and be more energy self-sufficient. China is the world's largest consumer of coal and the second largest of oil but it also now leads the world in clean energy. one third of the world's new wind power and solar panels is installed in China, and it sells more electric cars than any other country. The quest for energy self-sufficiency is a big motivation for many countries. China is moving fast, and America under President Donald Trump, is securing its energy independence with oil and gas. But unlike oil and gas renewables will not increase global warming. The long term transition to clean energy will throw up new global challenges. It will create tensions in unstable parts of the Middle East as oil revenue starts to dry up. Another challenge is that wind and sun are intermittent. renewables may require vast shared electricity grids spanning boarders to make them more efficient. To stop global warming the world needs a huge collaboration over our shared energy future. If we fail, wars over scarce resources could be even worse in the 21st century than in the 20th. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 42180 The Economist
Why many World Heritage sites are at risk | The Economist
 
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UNESCO's World Heritage site designation aims to protect the world's most valuable natural and cultural treasures. But often, that designation is not enough. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 In 2016, the archaeological site of Philippi in Greece was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It was one of 21 such sites that made the grade last year. The World Heritage Convention was adopted in 1972 with the aim of protecting the world's most valuable natural and cultural treasures. One of the first World Heritage sites was the Galapagos Islands in Ecuador. Italy has the most UNESCO World Heritage sites with 51 followed by China, Spain, France, Germany, and Mexico. There are now a total of 1052 World Heritage sites around the world in 165 countries. 814 of them are cultural sites that may have historical or anthropological value. 203 are natural sites that may include habitats for threatened species. 35 are a mixture of both types. But some of them are at risk. Of 229 sites identified by the World Wildlife Fund as being significant for their natural value in 2016 almost half are threatened by industrial development such as illegal logging, mining, and oil and gas development. Being designated a World Heritage site can bring attention and put pressure on governments to protect areas but the publicity can also cause an uptick in tourism to the sites, leading to further degradation. 55 World Heritage sites are listed a being in danger, some of them due to conflict. All six of Syria's UNESCO's World Heritage sites have been damaged or destroyed in the war. Palmyra was an ancient city whose well-preserved ruins were partially blown up by Islamic State militants after they seized control of the area. But World Heritage does not only consist of places you can visit. UNESCO has a list of things of "intangible cultural heritage" that icnludes items such as yoga, Turkish coffee and Belgian beer. They, at least, do not seem to be at risk of disappearing anytime soon. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films every day of the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 27876 The Economist
Why it is cheaper to buy property in Berlin than in other European capitals
 
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Property prices continue to climb in London and in other major European cities, but Berlin has defied the trend. While property prices have soared in European capital cities such as London and Paris, the city of Berlin remains an exception. Twenty-five years ago Berlin’s east side was in a shabby state. But even after years of renovation and development, a square metre in the German capital costs between €2500 and €3500, about a third of prices in London or Paris. So why is it still much cheaper to buy property in Berlin than other European capitals? First, Germans, especially Berliners, tend to rent property over the course of their lives instead of buying. Just over 42% percent of German properties are owner occupied according to the German federal statistics office. But only 15% of Berliners are home owners. With such a low demand for buying property, sellers cannot be too brash with their prices. Second, tenant co-operatives in Berlin are strong. Landlords cannot easily raise rents or evict bad tenants, which makes buying property to let less attractive as an investment. Finally, Berliners earn 7% less per year than the German national average. This may be because the city does not attract big companies. Of the 30 biggest companies listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange that make up the benchmark DAX Index, not one is based in Berlin. As a result the city attracts fewer high-income professionals, meaning that their salaries don’t trickle down to the city’s service economies. Although prices for standard apartments remain affordable, this may not last long. The development of new luxury apartments near the centre could drive up prices, making it more difficult in the future to find a bargain in Europe’s cool capital.
Views: 35622 The Economist
Germany's Mittelstand | The Economist
 
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As the world gazes admiringly at Germany's economic success, we discover why the country's small and medium-sized companies have performed so well Subscribe NOW to The Economist: http://econ.st/1Fsu2Vj On the outskirts of the sleepy town of Gutersloh in northwest Germany is Miele, a company that's been making kitchen and laundry appliances in the area for over a hundred years. Across the country over ten thousand of its employees produce over a million washing machines and tumble dryers every year. With annual sales of 2.8 billion euros the company now has eight plants across Germany. Miele is one of many small and medium sized German businesses known collectively as the Mittelstand. Firms like these provide the muscle to the country's economic might. Other nations may quake in the face of competition from Asia but not Germany. Its luxury manufacturers sell posh cars to the new Asian rich, and the metal stand makes machine tools and equipment that Chinese firms use to make consumer goods. But what makes the Mittelstand so successful? In recent years politicians have done a lot to help. In reforming the country's labour market successive governments have been ahead of the curve but so have Mittelstand companies themselves - constantly innovating, adapting, and evolving. By avoiding debt, specializing in niche markets, developing product related services, and investing in vocational training, Germany's small and medium-sized companies have remained at the cutting edge of global manufacturing Miele is still family-owned. Marcus Miele whose great-grandfather Karl co-founded the company in 1899 is one of its managing directors. Like many Mittelstand businessman he refuses to saddle the company with debt even if it means slower growth. Just a few miles down the road is Beckhoff Automation another successful family-owned company. It started out as an electrical installation shop in the 1950s and has since turned itself into a multi-million euro company - selling specialized industrial computers to customers all over the world. And Beckhoff doesn't just design its products here it also makes them. Visit one of its production lines and you're confronted with a scene you'd usually expect to see in China or Taiwan. This is where it makes the motherboards for its computers. By its refusal to outsource jobs like these Beckhoff maintain strict control over the quality of its products - but it also means the company can respond quickly to an increase in demand and that demand often comes from other German companies. Hans Beckhoff inherited the business from his father and has overseen the company's rapid growth over the past thirty years. He says that by sticking together, Mittelstand firms have created a value-added chain. In other European countries there are plenty of University graduates and unskilled workers but not much in between. In Germany vocational training is much better. Skilled blue-collar workers are the heart and soul of the Mittelstand. Not only trained to operate the machines but also to understand how they work. By offering academic apprenticeships a dual system where University students spend as much time working as studying firms like Miele play a crucial role in keeping Germany's unemployment levels low. The mittelstand's success has attracted admiring glances from the rest of Europe but it's built on foundations that may be hard to copy - from Germany's family traditions to its skilled workers. Like Silicon Valley, the mittelstand remains one of a kind Get more The Economist Follow us: https://twitter.com/TheEconomist Like us: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist View photos: https://instagram.com/theeconomist/ The Economist videos give authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
Views: 78737 The Economist
How volcanoes change the climate | The Economist
 
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Two hundred years ago, Tambora, a volcano in Indonesia, blew its top in the most violent eruption in recent history. Damage from the volcano and an associated tsunami was immense; perhaps 100,000 people died immediately, or starved in the aftermath. The effects on the wider world, though, were even greater. Like all large eruptions, Tambora’s was to change the climate around much of the planet for years. But just how do volcanoes change the climate? Eruptions spew out not just lava and ash, but also gases—indeed it is these gases, trapped under great pressure in molten rock, that give an eruption its explosive power. For the climate, the key gas is sulphur dioxide. Once it gets into the stratosphere, sulphur dioxide from a volcano mingles with water, forming tiny sulphate particles. These particles reflect some sunlight back into space, and the surface below cools. They also absorb some sunlight, warming up the stratosphere. These temperature changes have big knock-on effects. A cooler surface means less evaporation, and thus less rainfall. A warmer stratosphere means stronger jet streams. In the year after Tambora’s eruption, scientists estimate the stratosphere's sulphate veil caused a three percent drop in rainfall and cooled the planet by one degree Celsius. That is a temperature drop in one year twice as large as the long-term warming the Earth has seen over the past half-century. The climate upheaval caused a hiatus of the Indian monsoon, drought in southern Africa and widespread crop failures in Europe, where it was known as the year without a summer. No one can say when an eruption large enough to have such drastic effects will happen next. That one will happen, though, is a certainty. Music: "Thunder Dreams" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Views: 60229 The Economist
Videographic: A short, recent history of Congo | The Economist
 
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An animated videographic mapping the war in Congo: mineral wealth, militias and an epic march Subscribe NOW to The Economist: http://econ.st/1Fsu2Vj Get more The Economist Follow us: https://twitter.com/TheEconomist Like us: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist View photos: https://instagram.com/theeconomist/ The Economist videos give authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
Views: 119747 The Economist
What caused the Cambrian explosion? | The Economist
 
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For most of the Earth's history, life consisted of the simplest organisms; but then something happened that would give rise to staggering diversity, and, ultimately, life as complex as that which we see today. Scientists are still struggling to figure out just what that was. Subscribe NOW to The Economist: http://econ.st/1Fsu2Vj Get more The Economist Follow us: https://twitter.com/TheEconomist Like us: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist View photos: https://instagram.com/theeconomist/ The Economist videos give authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
Views: 262789 The Economist
Emerging economies | The Economist
 
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On many measures, the emerging economies now have more heft and reach than the developed ones Subscribe NOW to The Economist: http://econ.st/1Fsu2Vj The term emerging markets was coined in the 1980s. It was intended as a more appealing way to describe fast-growing countries in what was then known as the third world. But by the end of that decade these emerging economies were still small in comparison to developed economies such as Germany, Japan, and the United States. Over the past 20 years, especially the last ten, the emerging economies have grown quickly accounting for a rising share of world output. In 2008 they finally overtook the developed world accounting for more than half of the world economy if you include countries like South Korea that have since joined the ranks of the developed economies and if you take proper account of differences in local prices. This growing clout is most evident in the market for commodities. The emerging economies burned almost 55 percent of all the oil consumed last year their factories and building sites accounted for 65 percent of global copper consumption and three-quarters of the world's consumption of steel. Their consumer power has also grown they bought over half the world's motor vehicles last year, including vans and lorries, and took out over three-quarters of new mobile phone subscriptions. Developing countries were once self-reliant but poor. In recent decades, by contrast, cross-border trade and investment of soared in both directions. Last year they accounted for more than half of the world's exports and more than half of America's overseas sales. Emerging economies have also become more resilient. They have amassed an enormous cushion of hard currency reserves. That insurance may have helped persuade foreigners to invest in their stock markets which have increased greatly in size despite many ups and downs along the way. The emerging economies cannot match the rich world on every measure. For example Japan Europe and America still have few rivals in the emerging world when it comes to public debt which averages 35% of GDP in emerging economies and over a hundred percent in the rich world. The economic weight of the emerging world is profound but not unprecedented. In 1820 these countries accounted for about 70 percent of the world economy, before industrial revolutions in Europe and America left them far behind. Their recent progress is not then another revolution but rather a restoration. Get more The Economist Follow us: https://twitter.com/TheEconomist Like us: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist View photos: https://instagram.com/theeconomist/ The Economist videos give authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
Views: 19898 The Economist
Carnival: origins of the world’s biggest party | The Economist
 
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Carnival started as a pagan festival in ancient Egypt and has grown to become one of the largest celebrations in the world. Today more than 50 countries celebrate the tradition, but where did the party start? Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.st/2rXzONA From samba blocos in Brazil to masked balls in Italy, Carnival is a truly global phenomenon, celebrated in over 50 countries around the world. Carnival originated as a pagan festival in ancient Egypt, to usher out winter and celebrate the beginning of spring. When Alexander the Great conquered Egypt, the Ancient Greeks adopted the festival. The Romans assimilated the festival from the Greeks, and it was later overlaid with Christian meaning to become the festival of “Carne Vale” The word, “carne” means “meat” in Latin and “vale”, means “farewell”. In the Catholic calendar “carne vale” - farewell to meat, is a feast before the fast of Lent. In 18th century Italy, people preparing for Lent would throw indulgent fancy-dress parties and gorge before the fast. As Christianity spread throughout Europe, so too did the celebration of carnival. Colonisation exported it across the world. Portuguese colonists took Lent to the shores of Brazil, where they had also taken an estimated 4 million African slaves. Over time European rituals fused with African ones, to create Brazil’s world famous carnival. The flamboyant street parties are a celebration of Brazil’s mixed heritage. And it’s big business. In 2016 the city of Rio alone welcomed 1.1 million tourists during carnival, contributing around $900 million to the city’s economy. On the Caribbean island of Trinidad, the festival of Lent was introduced by French colonists. Slaves, excluded from these celebrations, created their own parties to the soundtrack of Calypso music, which mocked the French. This is now an integral part of Trinidad’s carnival. In India carnival is only celebrated in the southern state of Goa, where Portuguese colonists ruled for over four centuries. Parades occur throughout the state with bands, dances, and floats. Carnival is known as Mardi Gras in the American city of New Orleans and contributes over 2% to the city’s GDP. Carnival is not just a party in the sun. Quebec holds the third biggest carnival celebration in the world. From humble beginnings carnival has become a truly global celebration with millions of revelers all over the world contributing billions of dollars to the party Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://econ.st/2rXhTqu Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: http://econ.st/2rW2zKz Follow The Economist on Twitter: http://econ.st/2rW2AhB Follow us on Instagram: http://econ.st/2rW2B59 Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: http://econ.st/2rYl2q8
Views: 37223 The Economist
Instagram playboy is also the vice-president of Equatorial Guinea | The Economist
 
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Equatorial Guinea’s vice-president records his lavish lifestyle on Instagram, but it is unclear where his money comes from. He is currently being tried for embezzlement and money-laundering in France, where a verdict will be announced this week. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Meet one of Instagram's most famous playboys. He tours the world, driving fast cars and eating at the world's finest restaurants. He even gets hip-hop stars like Wyclef Jean to play at his lavish parties posting his exploits on his Instagram account. But this isn't your typical Instagram star. He's the vice-president of a country, Equatorial Guinea. A small country in west Africa with a lot of oil. Teodoro Nguema Obiang is the second-most-powerful man in the country. His father is the world's longest serving president, Teodoro Obiang Nguema. The Obiang family has amassed a fortune running into the hundreds of millions of dollars. But how have they made their money? Equatorial Guinea has some of the most opaque national accounts in the world. Per head it is the richest country in Africa, yet people live in plastic-shack poverty. The most recent figures available from the World Bank suggest that three-quarters of the population live below the poverty line. But the presidential family seem oblivious to the poverty. If the country is so wealthy, where is all the money going? Tutu Alicante is a lawyer from Equatorial Guinea who is in exile in the United States. He runs an organisation that is trying to tackle corruption in his homeland. He knows first hand how the massive theft of public money has left little behind to fund public services. While most of the population live in squalid conditions, Teddy splashes the cash, showing off his wealth on his Instagram account. Often using the hashtag luxury living he reveals a life of privilege and excess. Court papers say he amassed around $300m worldwide between 2000 and 2011, despite having an official government salary of less than $100,000 a year. The Department of Justice alleged that Teddy embezzled millions of dollars from the public purse as cabinet minister. The Department of Justice agreed a settlement of around $30m with Teddy. This year Teddy has found himself on trial again. This time in a separate case in France charged with embezzlement and money-laundering. After being unsuccessful in claiming diplomatic immunity he failed to show up to any of the court hearings. Instead, he posted videos on Instagram of himself on safari near Victoria Falls. The French court valued his assets in France at around €100m, including a large property bought for €25m in Paris. The French public prosecutor has asked for a three-year jail sentence, €30m fine, and all of Teddy's assets in France to be seized. The vice-president denies the charges. The future for Equatorial Guinea looks bleak. The president is ageing and his son is preparing to take over. The spendthrift strongmen of Equatorial Guinea are not the only presidential family in Africa who are under investigation for embezzling from the public purse. The presidents of Gabon and the Republic of Congo are also being investigated by judges in France. But Teddy's had a busy time of late posting from the beaches of Brazil to the Great Wall of China. There are plenty of countries where regulators turn a blind eye to despots who want to hide their ill-gotten gains. But their secrets are increasingly being leaked and it helps if the autocrats themselves do the leaking, via Instagram. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 410100 The Economist
How I survived torture | The Economist
 
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The United Nations Convention against Torture is 30 years old. Kolbassia Haoussou, a torture survivor, shares his story. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Over 160 states have signed the UN Convention against Torture sinces its adoption in 1984. Half of these countries still practice torture. In 2004, a failed coup d'etat took place in Kolbassia's home country in central Africa. In response, state forces arrested anyone they suspected of involvement in the coup, including those who had refused to campaign for the government, such as Kolbassia. Kolbassia was held in a military camp for seven months without charge. He was regularly interrogated and tortured by prison guards. Kolbassia escaped the military camp and fled to Cameroon. He travelled to Britain on a cargo ship, claimed asylum and was granted refugee status in 2005. But his experiences in the camp continued to haunt him. Kolbassia co-founded Survivors Speak OUT, an activist network for survivors of torture, in 2007. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 14088 The Economist
Can you really fight corruption? | The Economist
 
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What does it take to clean up a corrupt state? In one of the European Union's most corrupt countries a prosecutor has taken on the establishment, convicting over 1,000 Romanian officials. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 39456 The Economist
What a strong US dollar means for the world economy
 
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Our editor-in-chief Zanny Minton Beddoes takes us behind this week's cover to discuss the sharp rise of the dollar of late, and why its surge could pose problems for the world economy. For more videos, visit our YouTube channel https://www.youtube.com/theeconomist
Views: 15299 The Economist
Catalonia’s independence referendum explained | The Economist
 
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Catalonia’s independence referendum is due to take place on October 1st, in clear defiance of the Spanish government. We outline why some Catalans want independence from Spain, and why only 41% are likely to vote yes Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Tensions are rising in Catalonia. An independence referendum is planned for October 1st and if the majority vote Yes the Catalan government says it will declare independence from Spain. Raul Romeva is a member of the Catalan parliament, which favours independence. A parliament set on a collision course with the Spanish government. Xavier Albiol is the leader of the Catalan branch of Spain's ruling People's Party. His party fiercely opposes the referendum that has been deemed illegal by the Spanish constitutional court. Police have raided Catalan government offices, seized ballot papers, and arrested at least 12 officials in a bid to stop the vote. Catalonia has been part of Spain since the country first emerged as a unified kingdom in 1469. Famous for its spectacular human towers, a tradition dating back to the 18th century, Catalonia is one of Spain's wealthiest regions incorporating the tourist hub of Barcelona and a thriving manufacturing industry. It already enjoys more self-government than almost any other European region. So why are many Catalans discontented with their lot? Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 248338 The Economist
KAL draws... predatory pricing in business competition
 
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Dumping: when a firm floods a market with cheap goods to undercut the competition. Illustrated by our cartoonist KAL. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films every day of the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 10455 The Economist
How Portugal and Colorado solved their drug problems | The Economist
 
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For 20 years The Economist has led calls for a rethink on drug prohibition. This film looks at new approaches to drugs policy, from Portugal to Colorado. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Early morning in mainland Europe two white vans are quietly being loaded full of cocaine, hashish, and ecstasy. They're being readied to move nearly four tons of narcotics. Authorities have been trying for decades to contain the global trade in illicit drugs. The drugs in these vans will be taken to an incinerator and destroyed. It's a journey the Portuguese police make every month and they know there's no end in sight. At a Portuguese incineration plant the drug squad prepares to burn their latest haul. For years Portugal took a hard-line approach to drugs. In the 1990s drug use spread to every part of society in this small European country. One in every hundred of the population were believed to be addicted to heroin. Simply incinerating their supply was no answer. The country needed to forge a radical new approach to drugs. In 2001 Portugal came up with a policy that would put its people first. A new law enables citizens to possess small amounts of any illegal drug. It would no longer be a criminal offense for mostly casual users to enjoy their vice of choice. State resources could be focused on addicts; instead of being punished for their dependency they'd be offered help. Decriminalization has removed much of the stigma addicts felt and the fear of prosecution that stopped them from seeking help. 90% of Portugal's anti-drugs resources are now spent on treatment and prevention. 10% on policing and punishment. In the United States it's the opposite. Since decriminalization, drug-induced deaths have dropped from 80 in 2001 to just 16 in 2012. Over the same period the total number of heroin addicts halved. Portugal's experiment defied the fears of opponents and broke a global policy taboo. But for all its success, the new approach did nothing to address the supply side of the drugs trade. Though citizens weren't now being arrested for possessing drugs, the police were still chasing their dealers. Globally, criminal gangs and drugs cartels continued to dominate a drug trade worth over 300 billion dollars. The countries where those drugs originated continued to pay the price they've been paying for over a quarter of a century. The drug producing countries of Latin America are following the lead of Portugal and demanding change. But it's the country that began the war on drugs the might just bring it to an end. Here in America they're now selling marijuana in the mall. In 2014, Colorado became the first US state to fully legalize cannabis. Within a year it had already become a 700 million dollar business there. Among the new industries biggest players, Medicine Man is testament to the growing impacts of a new breed of cannabis capitalists. 50 different marijuana strains are grown, trimmed, dried and cured to develop their flavor and potency. It's cultivation on an industrial scale, yet Colorado law requires every plant to be tracked throughout the process from seed to sale. Legal controls are helping move marijuana away from the black market and into mainstream society. Testament to just how mainstream marijuana has become is the fastest-growing part of the industry known as edibles. There's a plethora of food and drink products designed to appeal to a public who may never have smoked. Infused with cannabis oil, edibles offer an example of how legalization enabled regulation. In 2014, Colorado introduced strict new rules on the packaging and potency of these products. For the industry it's become a necessary part of building trust with the public. Initial research has suggested marijuana use by teenagers actually fell. Meanwhile, the state reaped revenues of 76 million dollars from fees and taxes on marijuana sales that set to rise to nearly a hundred million dollars in 2016 and with it the funding of schools and the police it's been earmarked for. Colorado's experience helped to trigger a momentum for change across the United States. Almost half of American states have now taken some steps to legalize and regulate cannabis. Fourteen years ago Portugal's experiments at a bold new path for dealing with drugs. The shift it prompted could be about to reach a critical global mass. Check out Economist Films: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Read our Tumblr: http://theeconomist.tumblr.com/ Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Check out our Pinterest: https://uk.pinterest.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6
Views: 451700 The Economist
A history of Gold | The Economist
 
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In Gold We Trust: The Future of Money in an Age of Uncertainty The Economist has published a new book, authored authored by Matthew Bishop, American Business Editor, and Michael Green, on gold and the future of money. "In Gold We Trust" is available globally on Amazon as a Kindle Single. http://amzn.to/y8GjcY Subscribe NOW to The Economist: http://econ.st/1Fsu2Vj The price of an ounce of gold has risen more than fivefold in little more than a decade. How long can this go on? What does it tell us about the future of money? Gold divides opinion among the world's smartest investors. Which one is right? Gold is certainly rare but is it money? Gold money has been around for a long time - the first gold coins were minted more than 2,500 years ago by Croesus the king of Lydia. In the 19th century the global economy ran on gold in the age of the gold standard. The Bank of England was at the center of world trade yet even then in the Golden Age of the gold standard, critics said that sound money came at a high price for ordinary people. In 20th century gold became the villain and took much of the blame for the Great Depression of the 1930s. President Franklin D Roosevelt took America off the gold standard in 1933. Money no longer represented a fixed amount of gold. Money became the paper promises of governments and it seemed to be working fine. Gold went out of fashion - governments started selling off gold but then the party ended. Governments went on a spending binge to prevent a recession. The Federal Reserve printed billions of dollars to help the economy but where will all the money go? If the economy recovers quickly and politicians can fix the deficit, maybe the gold bubble will burst. If things don't get any better, more investors will be looking for a safe haven for their wealth. Is it back to business as usual, or are we on the verge of a revolution in the technology we call money? Get more The Economist Follow us: https://twitter.com/TheEconomist Like us: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist View photos: https://instagram.com/theeconomist/ The Economist videos give authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
Views: 16829 The Economist
How to tame tech giants | The Economist
 
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Google, Facebook and Amazon are among the biggest companies in the world. Their dominance is worrying for consumers and competition. Here's why. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: https://econ.st/2xvTKdy Can you imagine life without Google, Facebook or Amazon? Chances are you're actually on one of those platforms right now watching this. These companies have utterly transformed how we buy goods online and consume information online. But there's a growing view that the big web platforms need to be reined in. Google handles around 90% of searches in many countries and that gives it unprecedented access over information that people get. Facebook connects over 2 billion users or a quarter of the world's population. Both companies dominate online advertising which is how they make their money considering that their services are free. Amazon accounts for over 40 percent of retail sales in America and has a huge market share elsewhere. That lets it dictate terms to suppliers. Of course the companies are successful because they're innovative, they're dynamic, and they bring a lot of value to consumers. Problem is that their size brings worries. Today the major web companies are among the biggest firms in the world. A little over a decade ago they barely made the list. Critics worry that they're BAAD - that's big, anti-competitive, addictive and destructive to democracy. Now most of the concerns are overblown. Being big isn't illegal but the anti-competitive worries are real and we see early signs of it. Google has been fined by European regulators for favouring its own apps. Facebook has bought up startups that could have competed against it. The market share of the tech giants is as large as the industrial giants of the past. At the time regulators broke up the companies or treated them as utilities. Neither approach is gonna work today. First they should scrutinize even small mergers for potentially anti-competitive effects. This will prevent the tech giants from buying up firms that could become rivals. And second regulators should consider giving individuals rights over their data and potentially require the platforms to share data to encourage competition. It's hard to imagine how that might work in practice since nothing like that has been done before - but it is not impossible and just the threat of this compulsory openness might enforce good behavior. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 24909 The Economist
Edward Curtis's life and photography
 
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Edward Curtis undertook one of the greatest photographic odysseys ever when he set out to document North American Indians in the early 20th century. Today his work fetches record prices but he died in obscurity
Views: 24579 The Economist
Quantum technology opens up a world of possibilities | The Economist
 
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After a century confined to the laboratory, the quantum realm is turning its theoretical promise into practical opportunities. Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films every day of the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 21089 The Economist
Why startups are leaving Silicon Valley | The Economist
 
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The future of Silicon Valley is The Economist's cover story this week. Why are people leaving, and startups going elsewhere? Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: https://econ.st/2xvTKdy For decades Silicon Valley has been where you go if you want to make it big in technology but these days entrepreneurs are starting to look elsewhere. Our cover this week is peaked Valley. Silicon Valley is home to three of the five most valuable companies in the world - Apple, Alphabet which is Google's parent, and Facebook. But that's starting to change. Its relative importance is starting to decline as other hubs become more attractive. More people are now leaving the area than arriving. Venture capital investors are spending a larger proportion of their investments on companies outside the valley than they used to, and some big names are leaving - moving to other tech hubs such as Portland, Los Angeles, or Austin Texas. So why is this happening? Well, a big factor is cost. According to one entrepreneur it costs about four times as much to run a start-up in Silicon Valley than it does in most other American cities. But the Valley's peak may also indicate that innovation is becoming more difficult in general. It's getting harder to compete in the shadow of the tech giants - they hoover up all the talent and they can afford to pay people more than startups can. The median salary at Facebook is now $240,000 dollars. Another worry is anti-immigrant sentiment and tighter visa restrictions, which makes it harder for smart people to go where the opportunities are. In America more than half of the leading tech companies were founded by immigrants or the children of immigrants. Silicon Valley isn't going anywhere and if it's relative decline heralded the rise of a thriving web of rival tech hubs that would be good news. Unfortunately the valleys peak looks more like a warning that innovation everywhere is becoming more difficult. Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: https://econ.st/2MFURxs Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://econ.st/2ML6TFY Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://econ.st/2ML6Ud0 Follow us on Instagram: https://econ.st/2ML6PWK Follow us on Medium: https://econ.st/2ML6Wl8
Views: 46618 The Economist
Why eating insects makes sense | The Economist
 
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The world's population is projected to reach 11 billion by the end of the century. Feeding that many people will be a challenge, and it is further complicated by the impact of climate change on agriculture. That is why some people advocate an unusual way to boost the food supply and feed people sustainably: by eating less meat, and more insects. About 2 billion people already eat bugs. Mexicans enjoy chili-toasted grasshoppers. Thais tuck into cricket stir-fries and Ghanians snack on termites. Insects are slowly creeping onto Western menus as novelty items, but most people remain squeamish. Yet there are three reasons why eating insects makes sense. First, they are healthier than meat. There are nearly 2,000 kinds of edible insects, many of them packed with protein, calcium, fibre, iron and zinc. A small serving of grasshoppers can contain about the same amount of protein as a similar sized serving of beef, but has far less fat and far fewer calories. Second, raising insects is cheap, or free. Little technology or investment is needed to produce them. Harvesting insects could provide livelihoods to some of the world’s poorest people. Finally, insects are a far more sustainable source of food than livestock. Livestock production accounts for nearly a fifth of all greenhouse-gas emissions – that’s more than transport. By contrast, insects produce relatively few greenhouse gases, and raising them requires much less land and water. And they'll eat almost anything. Despite all this, most Westerners find insects hard to swallow. One solution is to use protein extracted from bugs in other products, such as ready meals and pasta sauces. Not having to look at the bugs, and emphasising the environmental benefits, might make the idea of eating insects a bit more palatable. For more video content from The Economist visit our website: http://econ.st/1ytKwbp
Views: 191260 The Economist
Videographic: Are Asian fertility rates declining?
 
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An animated infographic showing how declining fertility rates will transform the Asian family
Views: 18627 The Economist
When thoughts control machines | The Economist
 
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Efforts to connect human brains to computers have taken big leaps forward in recent years. Melding our minds with machines could provide the biggest single upgrade to human intelligence since our species evolved. But are we ready? Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: https://econ.st/2Fzn4ON Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: https://econ.st/2Fzez6w Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://econ.st/2FBxRIp Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://econ.st/2FBdYRC Follow us on Instagram: https://econ.st/2FCDEgK Follow us on Medium: https://econ.st/2FByz8v
Views: 39444 The Economist
Timothy Doner language hyperpolyglot | The Economist
 
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Timothy Doner, an enormously accomplished language learner at age 17, talks with us in French, Mandarin and Russian, explains how each language "feels" to him, and shares some of his tips Click here to subscribe to The Economist on YouTube: http://econ.trib.al/rWl91R7 hyper-polyglot Tim Doner has been teaching himself languages since he was 13. He now speaks nearly 20 languages! Hear Timothy Doner speak French: https://youtu.be/cKlWBKhe2rs?t=7m41s Hear Timothy Doner speak Mandarin: https://youtu.be/cKlWBKhe2rs?t=8m13s Hear Timothy Doner speak Russian: https://youtu.be/cKlWBKhe2rs?t=8m37s Daily Watch: mind-stretching short films throughout the working week. For more from Economist Films visit: http://films.economist.com/ Check out The Economist’s full video catalogue: http://econ.st/20IehQk Like The Economist on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist/ Follow The Economist on Twitter: https://twitter.com/theeconomist Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theeconomist/ Follow us on LINE: http://econ.st/1WXkOo6 Follow us on Medium: https://medium.com/@the_economist
Views: 305488 The Economist