Home
Search results “The end product of respiration”
What Are The End Products Of The Process Of Cellular Respiration?
 
00:46
"What Are The End Products Of The Process Of Cellular Respiration? Watch more videos for more knowledge What Are The End Products Of The Process Of ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/qpYVwH-H4dM What Are The Three Products Of Respiration ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/SuieiEgWiyI Stages of cellular respiration - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/GCjX0ivWvKc What Are The Major Products Of Aerobic ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/cMTX5uTWSUs Steps of glycolysis | Cellular respiration | Biology ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/ArmlWtDnuys Steps of Glycolysis Reactions Explained ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/uWOURkrxpH4 What Are The Three Main Stages Of Cellular ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/lGyvG4v05nc Glycolysis Overview Animation for Cellular ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/PowpbzBaTM0 What Happens During The Process Of Cellular ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/VPcvbPaATlI Cellular Respiration Overview Animation with ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/X-ZZETT6F-s Cellular Respiration - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/6xCPNvs5Ra8 Cellular Respiration (Electron Transport Chain ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/xbJ0nbzt5Kw Krebs / citric acid cycle | Cellular respiration ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/juM2ROSLWfw Electron Transport Chain Animation - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/Ak17BWJ3bLg How to remember glycolysis in 5 minutes ? Easy ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/_ZONAx1hnv0 Is Carbon Dioxide A By Product Of Both Aerobic And ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/WISRKczDrQ0 Photosynthesis/ Cellular Respiration Song - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/xRatXrRY1o0 "
Views: 381 Vincent Vincent
aerobic and anaerobic respiration class 10 in hindi
 
08:37
above video explains you the concepts of respiration class 10 in hindi. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ RESPIRATION -- The process of releasing energy from food is called respiration. The process of respiration involves taking in oxygen (air) into cell, using it for releasing energy by burning food, and then eliminating the waste product (co2 & water) from the body. Breathing And Respiration --- The mechanism by which organism obtain oxygen from the air and release carbon dioxide is called Breathing. Respiration is more complex process.Respiration include breathing as well as the oxidation of food in the cells of the organism to release energy. Breathing is a physical process whereas respiration also includes bio chemical process of oxidation of food.The process of breathing involves the lungs of the organism wereas the process of respiration also involves the mitochondria in the cells where food is oxidized to release energy. Respiration is just opposite of photosynthesis Types Of Respiration--------------------------- Basically there are two types of respiration: 1- Aerobic 2- Anaerobic Aerobic - 1- Aerobic respiration take place in the presence of oxygen. 2- Complete breakdown of food occur in aerobic respiration. 3- The end product in aerobic respiration are carbondioxide & water & energy. 4- Aerobic respiration produces a considerable amount of energy. Anaerobic - 1- Anaerobic respiration take place in the absence of oxygen. 2- Partial breakdown of food occur in anaerobic respiration. 3- The end products in anaerobic respiration may be ethanol and carbon dioxide ( as in yeast plants ) or lactic acid ( as in animal muscles). 4- Much less energy is produced in anaerobic respiration. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- you can also watch ---------- 1) life processes class 10 science biology in hindi-- https://youtu.be/5cL8TaLQh44 2) nutrition in plants class 10 in Hindi--https://youtu.be/VM_by-RkEDc 3) nutrition in human beings class 10 in hindi --https://youtu.be/IDZ1L4thQ5g 4) respiration class 10 in hindi - https://youtu.be/qiEjGMoTxVs OUR BIOLOGY PLAYLIST ----(all video available here ) Class 10th Biology---------------https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLp76zJxzEriMftvUdwRq_i0siN3tBwKJF
Views: 16584 Study Extent
What Is A Waste Product Of Cellular Respiration?
 
00:46
"What Is A Waste Product Of Cellular Respiration? Watch more videos for more knowledge What Is A Waste Product Of Cellular Respiration ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/fYxiHHFhu9g What Are The End Products Of The Process Of ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/qpYVwH-H4dM What Are The Three Products Of Respiration ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/SuieiEgWiyI What Are The Major Products Of Aerobic ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/cMTX5uTWSUs ATP & Respiration: Crash Course Biology #7 - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/00jbG_cfGuQ Electron Transport Chain (ETC) - Oxidative ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/YR5b6ASJ_OU Glycolysis Overview Animation for Cellular ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/PowpbzBaTM0 Cellular Respiration Overview Animation with ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/X-ZZETT6F-s What Waste Product Of Yeast Respiration Is ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/x2oUj9Z4HNU What is CELLULAR RESPIRATION? What does ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/upV47oor_yw Is Carbon Dioxide A By Product Of Both Aerobic And ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/WISRKczDrQ0 Cellular Respiration - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/6xCPNvs5Ra8 Online tutorial on cellular respiration - Biology - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/BEupy-I8nxM Cellular respiration - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/ySmmZfedM4A Cellular Respiration overview - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/4_X3CanX6iE Cellular respiration in hindi | Introduction to ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/IpGkBgCpy7Q cellular respiration - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/iIH85ZuOF60 Anaerobic Respiration in the Muscles | Biology for ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/40Wp3-ntNis Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/aWlWzveJfUI What Waste Product Of Yeast Respiration Is ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/iKbEYhbtHCU"
Views: 382 Vincent Vincent
What Are The Three Products Of Respiration?
 
00:45
"What Are The Three Products Of Respiration? Watch more videos for more knowledge What Are The Three Products Of Respiration? - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/SuieiEgWiyI What Are The Major Products Of Aerobic ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/cMTX5uTWSUs What Is Aerobic Respiration? | Biology for All ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/ZkqEno1r2jk Stages of cellular respiration - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/GCjX0ivWvKc What Are the Products of Photosynthesis ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/_5DIWp-zSqw Cellular Respiration and the Mighty Mitochondria ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/4Eo7JtRA7lg ATP & Respiration: Crash Course Biology #7 - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/00jbG_cfGuQ Cellular Respiration - 3 parts - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/hZUc5KndgyE What Are The End Products Of The Process Of ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/qpYVwH-H4dM Anaerobic Respiration in the Muscles | Biology for ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/40Wp3-ntNis What Are The Three Main Stages Of Cellular ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/lGyvG4v05nc Electron Transport Chain (ETC) - Oxidative ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/YR5b6ASJ_OU Cellular Respiration Part 3: The Electron Transport ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/VxCdheLvrx4 Steps of glycolysis | Cellular respiration | Biology ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/ArmlWtDnuys Cellular Respiration (Electron Transport Chain ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/xbJ0nbzt5Kw Introduction to cellular respiration | Cellular ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/2f7YwCtHcgk Steps of Glycolysis Reactions Explained - Animation ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/uWOURkrxpH4 What Is Anaerobic Respiration | Biology for All ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/HZtXLhm7ISA Glycolysis Overview Animation for Cellular ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/PowpbzBaTM0 Cellular Respiration Steps and Pathways - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/OYQPQEOdCU8"
Views: 402 Vincent Vincent
ATP & Respiration: Crash Course Biology #7
 
13:26
In which Hank does some push ups for science and describes the "economy" of cellular respiration and the various processes whereby our bodies create energy in the form of ATP. Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dftba.com/product/1av/CrashCourse-Biology-The-Complete-Series-DVD-Set Like CrashCourse on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Special thanks go to Stafford Fitness (www.staffordfitness.net) for allowing us to shoot the gym scenes in their facilities. This video uses sounds from Freesound.org, a list of which can be found, along with the CITATIONS for this episode, in the Google Document here: http://dft.ba/-25Ad Table of Contents: 1) Cellular Respiration 01:00 2) Adenosine Triphosphate 01:29 3) Glycolysis 4:13 A) Pyruvate Molecules 5:00 B) Anaerobic Respiration/Fermentation 5:33 C) Aerobic Respiration 6:45 4) Krebs Cycle 7:06 A) Acetyl COA 7:38 B) Oxaloacetic Acid 8:21 C) Biolography: Hans Krebs 8:37 D) NAD/FAD 9:48 5) Electron Transport Chain 10:55 6) Check the Math 12:33 TAGS: crashcourse, biology, science, chemistry, energy, atp, adenosine triphosphate, cellular respiration, glucose, adp, hydrolysis, glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain, fermentation, lactic acid, enzyme, hans krebs, citric acid, ATP synthase Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 6596263 CrashCourse
Steps of glycolysis | Cellular respiration | Biology | Khan Academy
 
12:02
Introduction to glycolysis. Role of glycolysis in producing ATPs and NADHs and converting glucose to pyruvates. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/pyruvate-oxidation-and-the-citric-acid-cycle/v/krebs-citric-acid-cycle?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/glycolysis/v/glycolysis?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82qE46vcTn7lP4tK_RHhdg?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 1040435 Khan Academy
Overview of glycolysis | Cellular respiration | Biology | Khan Academy
 
13:30
Overview of the basics of glycolysis. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/glycolysis/v/glycolysis-overview?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/overview-of-cellular-respiration-steps/v/overview-of-cellular-respiration?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82qE46vcTn7lP4tK_RHhdg?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 2090845 Khan Academy
Introduction to cellular respiration | Cellular respiration | Biology | Khan Academy
 
14:19
Introduction to cellular respiration, including glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/intro-to-cellular-respiration/v/oxidation-and-reduction-from-biological-view?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/intro-to-cellular-respiration/v/atp-hydrolysis-mechanism?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82qE46vcTn7lP4tK_RHhdg?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 2450691 Khan Academy
Glycolysis! (Mr. W's Music Video)
 
03:49
On iTunes at https://itunes.apple.com/us/artist/glenn-wolkenfeld/id555040717 On Amazon at http://tinyurl.com/pvt5kbb Buy the video at http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Glenn-Wolkenfeld-1 Get curriculum at http://www.sciencemusicvideos.com On twitter, https://twitter.com/GlennWolkenfeld Glycolysis is the first step in cellular respiration. This rap lecture teaches all you need to know about glycolysis at the AP Biology or Freshman Biology level. LYRICS Glycolysis is a series of reactions, Enzymatic actions, energy transactions, Takes glucose, a molecule so sugary, Breaks it down for NADH and ATP It's an anaerobic cytoplasmic pathway that amazes Organized easily into three phases, Investment, cleavage, and energy harvest, Tell me later which one you like best. Investment: activation energy's supplied, Cleavage: our six carbon sugar divides Harvest: we get our energy yield, So beautiful, so intricate keep your eyes peeled CHORUS Glycolysis! Come on sugar, come on sugar, for the breakdown. For the breakdown. Investment's like striking a match, That energy you put in makes the fire catch For glycolysis investments two ATPs, Which act as activation energy Enzymes take phosphate from ATPs Jam 'em on a glucose rearranging it to fructose, Leaving Fructose 1- 6 bisphosphate on the table, With two phosphates, it's highly unstable! Moving us to the second phase The cleaving of Fructose bisphosphate Cause glycolysis means splitting sugar, you can see cleavage yields two molecules with carbons three One is glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate G3P It continues on our pathway broken down for energy But the second one an enzyme will immediately, Convert into a second G3P CHORUS Phase 3: G3P gets rearranged and oxidized, By an enzymatic assembly line, That harvest energy from each G3P One NADH and 2 ATPs Double this yield per G3P To two NADH and 4 ATPs That's the gross yield for every glucose in A generous accounting of glycolysis's win But 2ATPs were invested in phase 1 So you net just two you can use to jump or run, Put two in, get four out, your net gain is two, Two ATPs that you can use. If that doesn't seem like very much, it's cause it ain't, There's tons of energy left in pyruvate, The two three carbon molecules we're left with at the end. And what happens to pyruvate is gonna depend, On the metabolic pathway where pyruvate gets sent, If its anaerobic it'll be fermented But in aerobic cells pyruvate's termination Will be the Krebs cycle and total oxidation! CHORUS Review: glycolysis starts with investment of two ATPs to the glucose that we started with, The product is cleaved into two G3Ps From which the cell harvests NADH and ATPs. This anaerobic pathway is respiration's first phase, It's billions of year's old evolved in ancient days before O2 accumulated in the seas, before eukaryotic cells like ours arrived on the scene It's everywhere, ubiquitous, in every organism, Bacteria, sequoia tree, no matter your metabolism, Happens in the cytoplasm doesn't need no organelles. You wanna find glycolysis? Look in any cell!
Views: 1416344 sciencemusicvideos
Fermentation
 
08:34
What happens when you can't do aerobic cellular respiration because oxygen isn't available? Explore fermentation with The Amoeba Sisters! This video focuses on alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation, and it also mentions how this pathway is different from anaerobic cellular respiration. Table of Contents: 0:39 Why do organisms need oxygen? 1:01 Aerobic Cellular Respiration 2:07 Options for when there is no oxygen? 2:38 Anaerobic Respiration 3:18 Fermentation 5:38 Alcoholic Fermentation 6:35 Lactic Acid Fermentation Reference: OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Apr 9, 2018 http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected] ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Further Reading regarding how lactate/lactic acid may -not- be responsible for delayed muscle soreness (or fatigue)? Biology OpenStax (free, peer-reviewed textbook): https://cnx.org/contents/[email protected]:[email protected]/Metabolism-without-Oxygen https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00913847.1983.11708485 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/297742203_Lactate_Friend_or_Foe https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7206794_Lactic_Acid_and_Exercise_Performance https://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/16/health/nutrition/16run.html ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters More ways to Support Us? http://www.amoebasisters.com/support-us.html Our Resources: Biology Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwL0Myd7Dk1F0iQPGrjehze3eDpco1eVz GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Unlectured Series: https://www.amoebasisters.com/unlectured Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages, and we are thankful for those that contribute different languages! YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are not affiliated with any of the translated subtitle credits that YouTube may place below. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 219271 Amoeba Sisters
Science – Yeast Experiment: measuring respiration in yeast – Think like a scientist (8/10)
 
05:39
This experiment uses a living organism to investigate the conditions under which life grows the best. (Part 8 of 10) Playlist link - http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLhQpDGfX5e7CuUkPlpiW7agdJvdbdTPma Transcript link - http://podcast.open.ac.uk/feeds/3069_thinklikeascientist/transcript/33772_ou_futurelearn_experiments_vid_1010.pdf Read the article: Basic Science: Understanding experiments - Taking it further https://www.open.edu/openlearn/futurelearn/understanding-experiments Study free course on Basic science: understanding experiments at the Open University https://www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths-technology/basic-science-understanding-experiments/content-section-overview?active-tab=description-tab Study module Returning to STEM at The Open University https://www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths-technology/returning-stem/content-section-overview?active-tab=description-tab Study the module technology and maths Access module https://www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths-technology/returning-stem/content-section-overview?active-tab=description-tab The Open University is the world’s leading provider of flexible, high-quality online degrees and distance learning, serving students across the globe with highly respected degree qualifications, and the triple-accredited MBA. The OU teaches through its own unique method of distance learning, called ‘supported open learning’ and you do not need any formal qualifications to study with us, just commitment and a desire to find out what you are capable of. Free learning from The Open University http://www.open.edu/openlearn/ For more like this subscribe to the Open University channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCXsH4hSV_kEdAOsupMMm4Qw Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ouopenlearn/ Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/OUFreeLearning #OpenUniversity #science
Electron Transport Chain ETC Made Easy
 
08:14
Electron Transport Chain ETC Made Easy Follow on Instagram for the Flashcards : https://www.instagram.com/medsimplified/ LIKE US ON FACEBOOK : https://fb.me/Medsimplified GLYCOLYSIS : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qij1m7XUhk KREBS CYCLE : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubzw64PQPqM&t=181s Beta oxidation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=__jS-pjzb5k&t=5s An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane. This creates an electrochemical proton gradient that drives the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that stores energy chemically in the form of highly strained bonds. The molecules of the chain include peptides, enzymes (which are proteins or protein complexes), and others. The final acceptor of electrons in the electron transport chain during aerobic respiration is molecular oxygen although a variety of acceptors other than oxygen such as sulfate exist in anaerobic respiration. In chloroplasts, light drives the conversion of water to oxygen and NADP+ to NADPH with transfer of H+ ions across chloroplast membranes. In mitochondria, it is the conversion of oxygen to water, NADH to NAD+ and succinate to fumarate that are required to generate the proton gradient. Complex I In Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, NADH-CoQ reductase, or NADH dehydrogenase; EC 1.6.5.3), two electrons are removed from NADH and ultimately transferred to a lipid-soluble carrier, ubiquinone (Q). The reduced product, ubiquinol (QH2), freely diffuses within the membrane, and Complex I translocates four protons (H+) across the membrane, thus producing a proton gradient. Complex I is one of the main sites at which premature electron leakage to oxygen occurs, thus being one of the main sites of production of superoxide. The pathway of electrons is as follows: NADH is oxidized to NAD+, by reducing Flavin mononucleotide to FMNH2 in one two-electron step. FMNH2 is then oxidized in two one-electron steps, through a semiquinone intermediate. Each electron thus transfers from the FMNH2 to an Fe-S cluster, from the Fe-S cluster to ubiquinone (Q). Transfer of the first electron results in the free-radical (semiquinone) form of Q, and transfer of the second electron reduces the semiquinone form to the ubiquinol form, QH2. During this process, four protons are translocated from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space. [4] As the electrons become continuously oxidized and reduced throughout the complex an electron current is produced along the 180 Angstrom width of the complex within the membrane. This current powers the active transport of four protons to the intermembrane space per two electrons from NADH. Complex II In Complex II (succinate dehydrogenase or succinate-CoQ reductase; EC 1.3.5.1) additional electrons are delivered into the quinone pool (Q) originating from succinate and transferred (via flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)) to Q. Complex II consists of four protein subunits: succinate dehydrogenase, (SDHA); succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial, (SDHB); succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit C, (SDHC) and succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, (SDHD). Other electron donors (e.g., fatty acids and glycerol 3-phosphate) also direct electrons into Q (via FAD). Complex 2 is a parallel electron transport pathway to complex 1, but unlike complex 1, no protons are transported to the intermembrane space in this pathway. Therefore, the pathway through complex 2 contributes less energy to the overall electron transport chain process. Complex III In Complex III (cytochrome bc1 complex or CoQH2-cytochrome c reductase; EC 1.10.2.2), the Q-cycle contributes to the proton gradient by an asymmetric absorption/release of protons. Two electrons are removed from QH2 at the QO site and sequentially transferred to two molecules of cytochrome c, a water-soluble electron carrier located within the intermembrane space. The two other electrons sequentially pass across the protein to the Qi site where the quinone part of ubiquinone is reduced to quinol. A proton gradient is formed by one quinol (2H+2e-) oxidations at the Qo site to form one quinone (2H+2e-) at the Qi site. (in total four protons are translocated: two protons reduce quinone to quinol and two protons are released from two ubiquinol molecules). QH2 + 2 cytochrome c (FeIII) + 2 H+in → Q + 2 cytochrome c (FeII) + 4 H+out When electron transfer is reduced (by a high membrane potential or respiratory inhibitors such as antimycin A), Complex III may leak electrons to molecular oxygen, resulting in superoxide formation. -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- CHECK OUT NEWEST VIDEO: "Nucleic acids - DNA and RNA structure " https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lZRAShqft0 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 527196 MEDSimplified
Glycolysis Pathway Made Simple !!  Biochemistry Lecture on Glycolysis
 
06:37
Help us Improve our content Support us on Patreon : https://www.patreon.com/medsimplfied . Glycolysis Pathway Made Simple! Biochemistry Lecture on Glycolysis LIKE US ON FACEBOOK : https://fb.me/Medsimplified Please SUPPORT MEDSIMPLIFEID BY BUYING ANYTHINGFROM AMAZON OR FLIPKART USING OUR AFFILIATE LINKS : AMAZON US--- https://goo.gl/XSJtTx AMAZON India http://goo.gl/QsUhku FLIPKART http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN FLIPKART MOBILE APP http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term[1] for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy molecules ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). Glycolysis is a determined sequence of ten enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The intermediates provide entry points to glycolysis. For example, most monosaccharides, such as fructose and galactose, can be converted to one of these intermediates. The intermediates may also be directly useful. For example, the intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is a source of the glycerol that combines with fatty acids to form fat. Glycolysis is an oxygen independent metabolic pathway, meaning that it does not use molecular oxygen (i.e. atmospheric oxygen) for any of its reactions. However the products of glycolysis (pyruvate and NADH + H+) are sometimes metabolized using atmospheric oxygen.[4] When molecular oxygen is used for the metabolism of the products of glycolysis the process is usually referred to as aerobic, whereas if no oxygen is used the process is said to be anaerobic.[5] Thus, glycolysis occurs, with variations, in nearly all organisms, both aerobic and anaerobic. The wide occurrence of glycolysis indicates that it is one of the most ancient metabolic pathways.[6] Indeed, the reactions that constitute glycolysis and its parallel pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, occur metal-catalyzed under the oxygen-free conditions of the Archean oceans, also in the absence of enzymes. Glycolysis could thus have originated from chemical constraints of the prebiotic world. Glycolysis occurs in most organisms in the cytosol of the cell. The most common type of glycolysis is the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas (EMP pathway), which was discovered by Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof, and Jakub Karol Parnas. Glycolysis also refers to other pathways, such as the Entner–Doudoroff pathway and various heterofermentative and homofermentative pathways. However, the discussion here will be limited to the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway. Preparatory phase The first five steps are regarded as the preparatory (or investment) phase, since they consume energy to convert the glucose into two three-carbon sugar phosphates Pay-off phase The second half of glycolysis is known as the pay-off phase, characterised by a net gain of the energy-rich molecules ATP and NADH. Since glucose leads to two triose sugars in the preparatory phase, each reaction in the pay-off phase occurs twice per glucose molecule. This yields 2 NADH molecules and 4 ATP molecules, leading to a net gain of 2 NADH molecules and 2 ATP molecules from the glycolytic pathway per glucose. Watch again : https://youtu.be/8qij1m7XUhk -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- CHECK OUT NEWEST VIDEO: "Nucleic acids - DNA and RNA structure " https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lZRAShqft0 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 434926 MEDSimplified
Anaerobic Respiration in the Muscles | Biology for All | FuseSchool
 
02:52
Ever wondered why feel all stiff the day after doing lots of exercise, in order for you to contract your muscles they need the energy that is released in respiration. However, when you're doing heavy exercise for a long time the muscles can't always get the oxygen they need to carry out aerobic respiration. In this case the muscle cells can switch to carry out another type of respiration called anaerobic respiration. this is respiration without oxygen so why don't we just do this respiration all the time if we don't need oxygen that we don't need to bother breathing. Well unfortunately anaerobic respiration is not as good as aerobic firstly it only produces a small amount of energy compared to aerobic respiration and also it produces a nasty waste product called lactic acid. The muscles in your forearm which control the fingers been out carrying out anaerobic respiration. After a while the lactic acid will start to build up in the muscles and it causes pain. When you stop exercising you will need to break down this lactic acid. To do this lactic acid needs to travel in the blood to deliver. Here it is broken down using oxygen into carbon dioxide and water.  After vigorous exercise, you may find you are still breathing very heavily for a time afterwards. This is to get the oxygen into the blood needed to break down lactic acid. We say after doing anaerobic respiration that you’re an oxygen debt, if you need to pay back the oxygen to the body. So, to answer the question at the start of the video, why do you feel stiff after exercise? it's all to do with lactic acid if you stop moving straight after exercise then the blood does not return to deliver and the lactic acid stays and the muscles. This is what makes them stiff the next day. So, it's very important to warm down after exercise or a gentle jog and stretching SUBSCRIBE to the FuseSchool YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. VISIT us at www.fuseschool.org, where all of our videos are carefully organised into topics and specific orders, and to see what else we have on offer. Comment, like and share with other learners. You can both ask and answer questions, and teachers will get back to you. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find all of our Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRnpKjHpFyg&list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Find all of our Biology videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjkHzEVcyrE&list=PLW0gavSzhMlQYSpKryVcEr3ERup5SxHl0 Find all of our Maths videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJq_cdz_L00&list=PLW0gavSzhMlTyWKCgW1616v3fIywogoZQ Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the FuseSchool platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
What Is Anaerobic Respiration | Biology for All | FuseSchool
 
04:02
Sometimes animals and plants cannot get enough oxygen to respire aerobically, such as during intense exercise, but they still need to respire to survive. After all, everything relies on respiration for energy. Luckily there is a back-up plan; anaerobic respiration. The generalised equation for anaerobic respiration in muscles is: glucose --- lactic acid + energy. There is no oxygen involved in anaerobic respiration. It is much less efficient than aerobic respiration, and much less energy is released. This is because the glucose is only partially broken down. Another problem is that lactic acid is produced. This is actually a poisonous chemical that if it builds up in the body, the muscles stop working and you get muscle cramp.You can only get rid of the lactic acid by taking in oxygen again and thus replacing the oxygen debt. Oxygen is needed to break down the lactic acid, turning it into carbon dioxide and water. The oxygen supply can also run out for plants too, such as in waterlogged soils. This then forces plants to have to carry out anaerobic respiration, as they too need to respire constantly. The generalised anaerobic respiration equation for plants is: Glucose --- Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide + Energy. In yeast, this process is called fermentation and is used to bake bread and brew alcohol. SUBSCRIBE to the FuseSchool YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. VISIT us at www.fuseschool.org, where all of our videos are carefully organised into topics and specific orders, and to see what else we have on offer. Comment, like and share with other learners. You can both ask and answer questions, and teachers will get back to you. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find all of our Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRnpKjHpFyg&list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Find all of our Biology videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjkHzEVcyrE&list=PLW0gavSzhMlQYSpKryVcEr3ERup5SxHl0 Find all of our Maths videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJq_cdz_L00&list=PLW0gavSzhMlTyWKCgW1616v3fIywogoZQ Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the FuseSchool platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
How to remember glycolysis in 5 minutes ? Easy glycolysis trick
 
06:14
How to remember glycolysis in 5 minutes ? -This lecture explains about a glycolysis trick that will make you understand glycolysis pathway easily under 5 minutes. These are known as mnemonics to study complex biological process and pathways to explain glycolysis metabolism in details. memorize glycolysis pathway in 5 minutes with this helpful mnemonics. This lecture will help you to - memorize glycolysis in 5 minutes remember glycolysis pathway easily apply this glycolysis trick to answer metabolism questions from glycolysis pathway For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the video lecture about glycolysis tricks and the easiest way to remember glycolysis in 5 minutes.
Views: 691914 Shomu's Biology
Calculating ATP Produced in Cellular Respiration
 
15:25
What is the currently accepted calculation of total ATP produced in the oxidation of one glucose molecule? Why do textbooks often report a range of ATP values? By Jasmine Rana.
Views: 81828 khanacademymedicine
Photosynthesis: Crash Course Biology #8
 
13:15
Hank explains the extremely complex series of reactions whereby plants feed themselves on sunlight, carbon dioxide and water, and also create some by products we're pretty fond of as well. Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dftba.com/product/1av/CrashCourse-Biology-The-Complete-Series-DVD-Set Like CrashCourse on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse This video uses sounds from Freesound.org, a list of which can be found, along with the CITATIONS for this episode, in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-29ai Table of Contents: 1) Water 1:16 2) Carbon Dioxide 1:32 3) Sunlight/Photons 1:43 4) Chloroplasts 1:57 5) Light Reaction/Light-Dependent 2:42 a. Photosystem II 3:33 b. Cytochrome Complex 5:54 c. ATP Synthase 6:16 d. Photosystem I 7:06 6) Dark Reactions/Light-Independent 7:55 a. Phase 1 - Carbon Fixation 8:50 b. Phase 2 - Reduction 11:31 c. Phase 3 - Regeneration 12:02 tags: photosynthesis, biology, science, crashcourse, plants, light, calvin cycle, respiration, water, carbon dioxide, sunlight, xylem, time lapse, stomata, chlorophyll, photon, plastid, chloroplast, oxygen, thylakoid, grana, lumen, stroma, chemistry, fusion, photoexcitation, photosystem II, electron transport chain, protein, cytochrome complex, carbon fixation, rubisco, phosphoglycolate, reduction, regeneration, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, G3P, glucose, cellulose, starch, life Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 4955839 CrashCourse
Fermentation of Yeast & Sugar - The Sci Guys: Science at Home
 
04:18
Welcome to science at home in this experiment we are exploring the fermentation between yeast and sugar. Yeast uses sugar as energy and releases carbon dioxide and ethanol as waste. Yeast and fermentation have been used for thousands of years when making bread. At the end of this episode you will be able to demonstrate fermentation, explain why yeast and fermentation make a balloon grow and explain the chemical reaction that occurs during fermentation. Help support us to do more experiments by becoming a patron on patreon: http://www.patreon.com/thesciguys Equipment and Ingredients: Water Yeast Sugar Balloons Bottles Lab Coat or Apron Gloves Goggles Previous Episode: Leidenfrost Effect: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sgk4sY9Xn1U&index=3&list=PL7VnnL-CJ-z5fZDvjxy7TATkITyw32erX Next Episode: Copper Plating: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3qhqTVssoo&index=6&list=PL7VnnL-CJ-z5fZDvjxy7TATkITyw32erX Check out our website for more experiments, written explanations of the steps and the material list. http://www.thesciguys.ca If you enjoyed the video remember to subscribe, comment and like us to show us you care. Remember to like us on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/thesciguys Follow us on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/thesciguys
Views: 236351 The Sci Guys
Steps of Glycolysis Reactions Explained - Animation - SUPER EASY
 
05:02
Glycolysis, part of cellular respiration, is a sequence of reactions that constitute the first phase of most carbohydrate catabolism (catabolism meaning the breaking down of larger molecules into smaller ones). Glycolysis occurs in most organisms in the cytosol of the cell. In glycolysis glucose, which is a form of sugar is eventually converted to pyruvate. The pyruvate end product of glycolysis can be used in either anaerobic respiration if no oxygen is available or in aerobic respiration via the TCA cycle which yields much more usable energy for the cell. ASSOCIATED VIDEOS: -- MORE on glycolysis: https://goo.gl/Sn6yHJ -- Electron Transport Chain (ETC) - Oxidative Phosphorylation: https://goo.gl/05oOpi SOCIAL MEDIA: ✔ FREE Medical Videos: https://freemedicalvideos.com/ ✔ Website: https://www.medical-institution.com/ ✔ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/Medicalinstitution ✔ Twitter: https://twitter.com/USMLE_HighYield ✔ Google Plus: https://plus.google.com/u/0/+Medicalinstitution ✔ Patron: https://www.patreon.com/medicalinstitution ✔ Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/medicalinstitut/ ✔ Instagram: https://goo.gl/kv12vE What is glycolysis? Glycolysis overview. Explain glycolysis. Glycolysis Pathway. Glycolysis cycle. Glycolysis steps explained. Glycolysis made easy. Glycolysis reaction steps. Glycolysis step by step. Major reactions in glycolysis. Steps of glycolysis. Enzymes of glycolysis. Glycolysis tutorial. Glycolysis Video. Glycolysis animation. Sugar breakdown. ATP production. The information in this video is intended for educational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as medical advice. Please consult your physician for advice about changes that may affect your health.
Views: 168167 Medical Institution
What Are the Products of Photosynthesis & Respiration & How A... : Photosynthesis & Other Reactions
 
01:57
Subscribe Now: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=ehoweducation Watch More: http://www.youtube.com/ehoweducation Photosynthesis is a very complex and involved series of chemical reactions that ultimately converts light energy, in the presence of water and carbon dioxide, into sugar and oxygen. Find out about the products of photosynthesis and respiration and how they are necessary to life with help from an experienced chemistry professional in this free video clip. Expert: Dan Weisenberger Filmmaker: bjorn wilde Series Description: Photosynthesis is a very complex and involved biochemical pathway involving several chemical reactions. Find out all about photosynthesis and enzymes with help from an experienced chemistry professional in this free video series.
Views: 1743 eHowEducation
Is Carbon Dioxide A By Product Of Both Aerobic And Anaerobic Cellular Respiration?
 
00:47
"Is Carbon Dioxide A By Product Of Both Aerobic And Anaerobic Cellular Respiration? Watch more videos for more knowledge Is Carbon Dioxide A By Product Of Both Aerobic And ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/WISRKczDrQ0 What Are The Major Products Of Aerobic ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/cMTX5uTWSUs Anaerobic Respiration in the Muscles | Biology for ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/40Wp3-ntNis What Are The Three Products Of Respiration ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/SuieiEgWiyI What Is Anaerobic Respiration | Biology for All ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/HZtXLhm7ISA What Is Aerobic Respiration? | Biology for All ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/ZkqEno1r2jk What Is A Waste Product Of Cellular Respiration ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/fYxiHHFhu9g B.9.1 Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/wavg7x3FPHI What Are The End Products Of The Process Of ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/qpYVwH-H4dM Cellular Respiration - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/6xCPNvs5Ra8 What Is Aerobic And Anaerobic? - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/Lb3_cDAiIWw Difference between AEROBIC and ANAEROBIC ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/HqH6rjeVJ7o Role of Carbon dioxide During Respiration - MeitY ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/nltE8Lz6tRQ ATP and Cellular Respiration - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/oMyNEFG1niI Glycolysis Overview Animation for Cellular ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/PowpbzBaTM0 What is Aerobic Respiration? - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch/vT-akaCy2Sc Testing for production of heat and carbon di oxide ... https://www.youtube.com/watch/vePUfEgetwA "
Views: 214 Vincent Vincent
Cellular Respiration  Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport 3D Animation
 
06:02
Cellular Respiration Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport Animation Cellular Respiration animation #Respiration #Glycolysis #Krebs_cycle #Electron_transport_chain Please → Like, comment, share and subscribe 👍🏻❤️
Views: 382815 McGraw-Hill Animations
Electron Transport Chain Animation
 
02:00
cellular respiration I. Energy flow & chemical cycling a. Autotrophs -- producers i. Solar energy à chemical energy b. Heterotrophs -- consumers i. Live off chemical energy c. Photosynthesis: i. Ingredients: 1. CO2 and H2O ii. Products: 1. Glucose and O2 d. Cellular respiration i. Plants & animals ii. In mitochondria iii. Waste products are ingredients for photosynthesis (& vice-versa) II. Cellular respiration a. Series of reactions that i. Are oxidations ii. Are also dehydrogenations 1. Lost electrons are accompanied by hydrogen ions (protons) b. Therefore, what is actually lost is a hydrogen atom (1 electron, 1 proton) c. Cells harvest energy by breaking bonds and shifting electrons from one molecule to another i. Aerobic respiration - final electron acceptor is oxygen (O) ii. Anaerobic respiration - final electron acceptor is inorganic molecule other than oxygen(N, etc) iii. Fermentation - final electron acceptor is an organic molecule (analogous to ^, no O)(lipid) d. Glucose = fuel e. Many steps f. 1 glucose may = 32 ATP! (usually 30 or so molecules) g. Hydrogen transfer h. Redox reaction (*******KNOW THIS FORMULA on slide pic) i. Glucose is oxidized ii. Oxygen is reduced III. ATP production a. The goal of cellular respiration is to produce ATP i. Energy is released from oxidation reaction in the form of electrons ii. Electrons are shuttled by electron carriers (e.g. NAD+) to an electron transport chain iii. Electron energy is converted to ATP IV. How cells make ATP a. Cells catabolize organic molecules and produce ATP in two ways: i. Substrate-level phosphorylation (transferring phosphate group from a substrate)(see slide) ii. Aerobic respiration V. 4 stages of cellular respiration a. Glycolysis i. Glucose à 2 pyruvate (~half glucoses) ii. 2 ATP iii. 2 NADH (electron carrier) b. Pyruvate oxidation i. 2 NADH c. Krebs cycle (aka citric acid cycle) i. 2 ATP ii. 6 NADH iii. 2 FADH2 d. Electron transport chain VI. Stage 1: glycolysis a. Enzymes found in cytosol b. Priming reactions i. 2 molecules of ATP invested ii. Glucose is phosphorylated twice c. Cleavage reactions i. One 6-carbon glucose broken into two 3-carbon sugar molecules d. Energy-harvesting reactions i. 3-carbon sugars à pyruvate ii. 4 ATP molecules produced directly (2 net ATP) iii. Electrons transferred to 2 NADH VII. Transporting electrons a. Electron path from glucose to oxygen b. Electron acceptors i. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide = NAD+ 1. NAD+ + 2H+ + 2e- à NADH + H+ ii. Flavin adenine dinucleotide = FAD(only used in Krebs) 1. FAD + 2H+ + 2e- à FADH2 c. Electron transport chain i. Stepwise transfer of electrons from one protein to another 1. Releases small amounts of energy with each transfer VIII. Recycling NADH a. As long as food molecules are available to be converted into glucose, a cell can produce ATP i. Continual ATP production results in accumulation of NADH and NAD+ depletion 1. NADH must be recycled into NAD+ a. With oxygen i. Aerobic respiration b. Without oxygen i. Anaerobic respiration ii. Fermentation IX. Pyruvate oxidation (see slide pic) a. For each pyruvate molecule i. NAD+ reduced to NADH ii. Pyruvate converted to acetic acid(loss of CO2) 1. Acetyl Coenzyme A (Acetyl CoA) a. coenzyme A 'escorts' acetic acid into krebs X. Running totals so far... (SEE SLIDE) a. Stage 3: Krebs cycle b. Occurs in the mitochondria c. Each acetyl CoA bonds to a 4-C "acceptor" molecule to form a 6-C product d. 6-C molecule is i. Oxidized (lose electron) 1. NADH ii. Decarboxylated (loss CO2) 1. CO2 e. 5-C molecule is oxidized & decarboxylated again i. NADH & CO2 f. Some energy used to transfer a phosphate group to an ADP molecule to form ATP directly g. 4-C molecule is oxidized i. NADH ii. FADH2 h. 4-C molecule is recycled XI. Running totals so far... (SEE SLIDE) XII. Harvesting energy a. Series of redox reactions (the steps) i. Release energy ii. Repositioning electrons closer to oxygen atoms XIII. Stage 4: electron transport chain a. NADH & FADH2 transport electrons from food to transport chains b. ETCs use this energy to pump H+ ions across mitochondrial membrane c. O2 pulls those electrons down the chain, causing release of H+ ions d. H+ ions flow into ATP synthase i. Chemiosmosis e. Each pair of electrons brought by NADH i. ~2.5 ATP f. Each pair of electrons brought by FADH2 i. ~1.5 ATP
Views: 166731 Dongem Biology
Fermentation explained in 3 minutes - Ethanol and Lactic Acid Fermentation
 
03:09
Check out the following links below! Over 1000+ Medical Questions: http://www.5minuteschool.com DONATE + SUPPORT US: http://paypal.me/5minuteschool Patreon: https://goo.gl/w841fz Follow us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/5MinuteSchool Follow us on Instagram: http://instagram.com/5minuteschool My personal Instagram: http://instagram.com/shahzaebb Contact us: [email protected] ______ ◅ Donate: http://www.5minuteschool.com/donate ◅ Website: htttp://www.5minuteschool.com ◅ Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/5minuteschool ◅ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/5minuteschool ◅ Email: [email protected] This video looks into the metabolic process of Fermentation in micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi. We look into 2 types of fermentation, ethanol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.
Views: 218693 5MinuteSchool
Respiration in Plants Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 | Respiration in plants
 
08:37
Class 11 Biology Respiration in plants In this module, you will learn about respiration in plants. We know that all living things need food, water, and air to survive. The oxygen provided by respiration is used to convert food into energy. While humans use their respiratory organs to take in oxygen, plants have no such specialized organs. This is because plants utilize less oxygen for the oxidation of food. Plants utilize only a small amount of food for oxidation and the rest is used in building their body in the form of cellulose. Further, the demand for oxygen is supplied during photosynthesis, where oxygen is an end product. Plants respire through small openings called the stomata on leaves and lenticels on stems and roots. Unlike animals, each part of the plant takes care of its oxygen needs. Plants respire at a slower rate as compared to animals. In the woody stems, the living cells are present close to the surface and aid in the diffusion of gases. Diffusion of gases is also facilitated by the presence of loosely arranged parenchyma cells that provide air spaces. Next, to respiration, the requirement of food becomes an important thing for survival. Humans and animals are heterotrophs in the sense that they obtain food from plants and other animals. Saprophytes like bacteria and some fungi feed on dead organisms. Green plants and cyanobacteria are the only organisms that can synthesize their own food using photosynthesis. They are the food source of the world as animals either directly or indirectly depend on them for food. To watch the complete lesson, register to get 5-day full access for free visit - http://bit.ly/2KbImVd
Views: 1124 LearnNext
Krebs / citric acid cycle | Cellular respiration | Biology | Khan Academy
 
17:47
Overview of the Krebs or Citric Acid Cycle Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/oxidative-phosphorylation/v/oxidative-phosphorylation-and-the-electon-transport-chain?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/glycolysis/v/glycolysis-overview?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82qE46vcTn7lP4tK_RHhdg?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 3929495 Khan Academy
Aerobic Cellular Respiration, Glycolysis, Prep Steps
 
10:21
This is an overview of Aerobic and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration, as well as Glycolysis and the Prep Steps. The Kreb's Cycle and electron transport chain are discussed in a second video. Thanks for stopping by!
Views: 9091 BOGObiology
Respiration in plants
 
06:07
Respiration in plants: an experiment to demonstrate the Respiration in FLOWERS AND BUDS- in this experiment, water is poured into the flask containing sprouted seeds to immerse them completely. The carbon dioxide released from the “flowers and buds” is channeled through a u shaped tube to react with lime water. The colour transformation of the lime water to white colour proves the respiration in “flowers and buds”. Plant Respiration Exchange of Gases in Plants: Plants do not have great demands for gaseous exchange. The rate of respiration in plants is much lower than in animals. Large amounts of gases are exchanged only during photosynthesis, and leaves are well equipped for that. The distance travelled by gases in plants is not much and hence diffusion is enough to meet the need. Hence, plants do not have specialized organs for exchange of gases. Lenticels and stomata serve as the openings through which exchange of gases takes place in plants. Respiration: The complete combustion of glucose yields energy during respiration. Most of the energy produced during respiration is given out as heat. CO2 and H2O are the end products of respiration. Class eleven biology plant respiration1 The energy produced during respiration is also used for synthesizing other molecules. To ensure the adequate supply of energy for synthesis of different molecules; plants catabolise the glucose molecule in such a way that not all the liberated energy goes out as heat. Glucose is oxidized in several small steps. Some steps are large enough to ensure that the released energy can be coupled with ATP synthesis. Steps of Respiration: Respiration happens in two main steps in all living beings, viz. glycolysis and processing of pyruvate. Glycolysis involves breaking down glucose into pyruvate. This is common in all living beings. Further processing of pyruvate depends on the aerobic or anaerobic nature of an organism. In anaerobic respiration, pyruvate is further processed to produce either lactic acid or ethyl alcohol. There is incomplete oxidation of glucose in anaerobic respiration. In aerobic respiration, pyruvate is further processed to produce carbon dioxide and water; alongwith energy. There is complete oxidation of glucose in case of aerobic respiration. GLYCOLYSIS The scheme of glycolysis was given by Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof and J Parnas. Due to this, it is also called the EMP Pathway. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. Glucose undergoes partial oxidation in glycolysis; to form two molecules of pyruvic acid. Four molecules of pyruvic acid are formed after partial oxidation of one molecule of glucose during this process. First of all, glucose and fructose undergo phosphorylation to produce glucose-6-phosphate. The enzyme hexokinase facilitates this process. Two molecules of ATP are utilised during phosphorylation of one molecule of glucose. Two molecules of fructose-6-phosphate are formed at the end of this step. Fructose-6-phosphate is then converted into PGAL (Phosphoglyceraldehyde). Each molecule of PGAL then undergoes various steps to finally produce Pyruvic Acid. Four molecules of ATP are produced during this conversion. Since two molecules of ATP were utilised during phosphorylation of glucose, hence net production of ATP at the end of glycolysis is two for each molecule of glucose. Class eleven biology plant respiration2 Fate of Pyruvic Acid: Pyurvic acid further undergoes subsequent processes which are different for anaerobic and aerobic conditions. FERMENTATION:- Endogenous electron acceptors are used for oxidation of organic compounds during fermentation. This is in contrast to aerobic respiration in which exogenous electron acceptors are used. Anaerobic does not necessarily mean absence of oxygen, rather it can also take place even in the presence of oxygen. Sugar is the most common substrate of fermentation. Ethanol, lactic acid and hydrogen are the common fermentation products. However, other compounds can also be produced by fermentation, e.g. butyric acid and acetone. Apart from taking place in yeast and many other anaerobes, fermentation also takes place in mammalian muscles. In our muscle cells, fermentation takes place during intense exercise; to meet out the excess demand of oxygen.
Views: 2038 FilmPhase Studios
Feedback Inhibition
 
04:42
In this video, Biology Professor (Twitter: @DrWhitneyHolden) discusses feedback inhibition, an important regulatory strategy that cells and organisms use to prevent the waste of materials and energy once the end product is no longer needed.
Views: 18933 Biology Professor
Cellular Respiration
 
06:33
Erika Tan explains the process of cellular respiration at the molecular level. TRANSCRIPT: Cellular respiration has a ton of steps, but the main thing to remember is that its purpose is to break down glucose into energy that the cell can use for life. This energy comes mainly in the form of ATP, or adenosine triphosphate. The glucose is broken down slowly through a series of many small steps because if the glucose were broken in one single, huge step, then that would unleash a ton of energy. There are two types of cellular respiration, and these are called aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic is the process that occurs when there is oxygen, and anaerobic is what happens when there’s no oxygen available. In the cytosol of the cell, a process called glycolysis is going to occur. Glycolysis breaks down this molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, also called pyruvic acid. Remember, this is happening in the cytosol. So as the glucose is being broken down into two pyruvate molecules, four ATP total are produced. But, it takes energy to break the glucose down in the first place, which means that two ATP are used to activate glycolysis. So since four ATP are made, but two were used up, a net product of 2 ATP results from this process. Even though we’re on aerobic respiration, glycolysis DOES NOT require oxygen. So, since it doesn’t need oxygen, we’ll see it again in anaerobic respiration. Also, the ATP made during glycolysis is produced through substrate-level phosphorylation, meaning that the phosphate of a substrate was transferred to an ADP molecule by an enzyme. This next process is called the Krebs cycle, and it takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria. But before the two molecules of pyruvate can even go through the Krebs cycle, they have to be converted into molecules of acetyl co-A. As each pyruvate molecule is being converted, another molecule called NADH is produced. Therefore, two molecules of NADH result because there are two pyruvate molecules from one molecule of glucose. Here’s a diagram of all of the steps of the Krebs cycle. So, in the beginning of the cycle, the acetyl co-A combines with a substance called oxaloacetate to make citric acid, giving the cycle its name. Then, as the citric acid is broken down reaction after reaction throughout the cycle, more molecules are produced. For example, one turn of the Krebs cycle produces 1 ATP molecule, 3 NADH molecules, and 1 molecule of FADH2. This is when CO2 is released. At the end of the Krebs cycle, you’ll have 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH2. That’s because there are two molecules of acetyl co-A going in, not just one. Now let’s move on to the last step, called the electron transport chain. This process relies on chemiosmosis, which is when there’s a gradient of ions across a membrane. Basically, the electron transport chain takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, and there are proton pump proteins embedded in the membrane that pump H+ protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space. The intermembrane space is between the inner membrane and the outer membrane of the mitochondrion. Now that there’s a proton pump, there will be a bunch of H+ ions in the intermembrane space, and that proton gradient will fuel the making of ATP. Here’s how. NADH and FADH2 are electron donators, and they deliver electrons to the proton pumps in the membrane. These electrons power the pumps to transport H+ from the matrix to the intermembrane space. An oxygen atom is located at the end of the electron chain, pulling electrons closer to it because it is highly electronegative (which means electrons are attracted to it). At the end, it combines with protons and electrons to form water, which is a waste product. So, as more H+ come over to the intermembrane space, they diffuse down the gradient because there’s more space in the matrix. They move down the gradient through this ATP synthase channel protein. The movement of these H+ ions powers the ATP synthase to make ATP by what we call oxidative phosphorylation. The total ATP made during this step varies, but it’s around 32-34. Now that we’re done with aerobic respiration, let’s move on to anaerobic respiration. This process happens without oxygen, so it originated very early when there was no free oxygen in the atmosphere. There are two types of fermentation, called alcohol and lactic acid fermentation, and both start off with glycolysis, which we already went over. After glycolysis, during alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. While this happens, NADH loses electrons to become NAD+. That’s why NAD+ now has a positive charge. This supply of NAD+ allows glycolysis to keep happening. Lactic acid fermentation is almost the same thing, except instead of converting pyruvate into alcohol, it’s converted into lactic acid. And, there’s no CO2 produced. During this, NADH loses electrons to become NAD+ again, allowing the cycle to continue over and over.
Views: 1324 Tangerine Education
End Product
 
00:14
Views: 18 Ruben Sanchez
Stages of cellular respiration
 
07:42
This is one of a series of videos on cellular respiration and photosynthesis. In this video, the specific stages of cellular respiration will be described. Emphasis is on different stages of cellular respiration, their purposes, as well as their reactants and products.
Views: 47482 BiologyMonk
Respiration in plants an experiment to demonstrate the Respiration in FLOWERS AND BUDS
 
06:07
Exchange of Gases in Plants: Plants do not have great demands for gaseous exchange. The rate of respiration in plants is much lower than in animals. Large amounts of gases are exchanged only during photosynthesis, and leaves are well equipped for that. The distance travelled by gases in plants is not much and hence diffusion is enough to meet the need. Hence, plants do not have specialized organs for exchange of gases. Lenticels and stomata serve as the openings through which exchange of gases takes place in plants. Respiration: The complete combustion of glucose yields energy during respiration. Most of the energy produced during respiration is given out as heat. CO2 and H2O are the end products of respiration. Class eleven biology plant respiration1 The energy produced during respiration is also used for synthesizing other molecules. To ensure the adequate supply of energy for synthesis of different molecules; plants catabolise the glucose molecule in such a way that not all the liberated energy goes out as heat. Glucose is oxidized in several small steps. Some steps are large enough to ensure that the released energy can be coupled with ATP synthesis. Steps of Respiration: Respiration happens in two main steps in all living beings, viz. glycolysis and processing of pyruvate. Glycolysis involves breaking down glucose into pyruvate. This is common in all living beings. Further processing of pyruvate depends on the aerobic or anaerobic nature of an organism. In anaerobic respiration, pyruvate is further processed to produce either lactic acid or ethyl alcohol. There is incomplete oxidation of glucose in anaerobic respiration. In aerobic respiration, pyruvate is further processed to produce carbon dioxide and water; alongwith energy. There is complete oxidation of glucose in case of aerobic respiration. GLYCOLYSIS The scheme of glycolysis was given by Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof and J Parnas. Due to this, it is also called the EMP Pathway. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. Glucose undergoes partial oxidation in glycolysis; to form two molecules of pyruvic acid. Four molecules of pyruvic acid are formed after partial oxidation of one molecule of glucose during this process. First of all, glucose and fructose undergo phosphorylation to produce glucose-6-phosphate. The enzyme hexokinase facilitates this process. Two molecules of ATP are utilised during phosphorylation of one molecule of glucose. Two molecules of fructose-6-phosphate are formed at the end of this step. Fructose-6-phosphate is then converted into PGAL (Phosphoglyceraldehyde). Each molecule of PGAL then undergoes various steps to finally produce Pyruvic Acid. Four molecules of ATP are produced during this conversion. Since two molecules of ATP were utilised during phosphorylation of glucose, hence net production of ATP at the end of glycolysis is two for each molecule of glucose.
Views: 1640 FilmPhase Studios
Photosynthesis/ Cellular Respiration Song
 
03:49
-WATCH IN HD- LYRICS DOWN BELOW Made by: Faith Kim, Andra Scott, Rachel Harris, Amy Tran, and Victoria Hoang Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, provided by the Sun, into chemical energy that that is released to fuel the organisms' activities, but It also releases oxygen into the atmosphere. 2. Oxygen is a necessity for life on earth, and plants produce oxygen by taking in CO2 which we breath out through a process called cellular respiration. 4. A heterotroph must consume to get energy, however a autotroph makes their own food from energy provided by the sun. 5. Solar energy: The energy the Earth receives from the sun, mostly as visible light or other forms of electromagnetic radiation. Chemical energy: Chemical Energy is energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds atoms and molecules, released in a chemical reaction. 6. ATP 12. Light dependent reaction- thyakoloid Light independent- Calvin cycle 1. Cellular respiration is what cells do to break up sugars into a form that the cell can use as energy called ATP. 2. They use ATP to get their energy. They get their energy from the food they consume. 10. 36-38 ATP Once upon time A few products ago There was some sunlight, A little H2O You add some CO2 You add some CO2 You add some CO2-2-2-2-2 I guess it needed light To start making its food In order to produce Some wonderful O2 And sugar, some sugar, to make sugar-ar-ar-ar-ar And it takes place, In the chloroplast, And I realize, it’s photosynthesis Hey 6CO2 plus 6H2O Then you add some sunlight To make glucose and some O2 as well Now our plant’s gonna grow real good That's equation for photosynthesis, And don't forget about The pigments That absorb energy That's chlorophyll A and B Oh, oh, pigments,pigments,pigments Oh, oh, photo- synthe-synthe - sis Record scratch noise “But guys…” I’m on the phone with my boyfriend, he’s upset He says this cell - respiration thing’s so complex Cause he doesn’t know his Bio like I do He’s in his room It’s a typical study night He’s asking me about whether he’s got it right And I told him what I’m going to tell you (First glycolysis) (splits your glucose) (into some pyruvates) (in the cytoplasm) (making ATP, and some NADH) (and now you’re ready for the next step in CR) (If you could see that all your cells have to respire) The CR process starts off with simple reactants C6H12O6 and 6O2 The Krebs Cycle is next in the CR steps It happens in the mitochondria, what's next? Energy production with oxygen, Do you even know what this makes? CO2 and H2O molecules With net yield of 2 ATP Now we’re moving to the next step ETC is what comes next Last step is ETC we’re almost finished I can't help but thinking that you won't past the test. Okay what's next, I know I'm a pest. I’ll say what’s next The CR process starts off with simple reactants Then ends off with ATP and 6CO2 With 6H2O NADH AND FADH2 Pass their Energy down the chain to combine with H+ ions and oxygen To make H2O
Views: 33278 LifeOf3
NEET MCQ Pyruvic acid, the last product of glycolysis, is
 
00:51
NEET MCQ Question: Pyruvic acid, the last product of glycolysis, is degraded to CO₂ and H₂O in Choice1: matrix of chloroplasts Choice2: cytoplasm Choice3: matrix of mitochondria Choice4: inner membrane Category: Respiration in Plants Asked In:UP2001 Hint:Mitochondrial matrix Explanation: Pyruvic acid gets converted to acetyl CoA and then enters Krebs cycle which takes place in mitochondrial matrix. End products of respiratory pathway are -CO₂ + H₂O + ATP. Answer:matrix of mitochondria Keywords: NEET MCQ, NEET Questions, NEET Biology Questions For more multiple Choice Questions visit https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.neetlab.neetlab For NEET Preparation Study Materials: https://neetlab.com
Views: 123 NEETlab Academy
Anaerobic Respiration | Mechanism of Anaerobic Respiration - NEET Botany XI
 
05:31
Anaerobic Respiration - Mechanism of Anaerobic Respiration - NEET Botany XI Mechanism of Anaerobic Respiration involves two steps 1. Glycolysis: It is similar to glycolysis of aerobic respiration except that aerobic glycolysis produces 2 ATP and 2 NADH_2. (Aerobic glycolysis is 4 times more efficient than anaerobic glycolysis.) 2. Anaerobic Breakdown of Pyruvic Acid Depending upon the organism, type of tissue and nature of end product, anaerobic respiration or fermentation is of following types: (i) Alcoholic Fermentation: It is that fermentation where product is ethyl alcohol and CO_2. The acetaldehyde is the intermediate product of alcoholic fermentation. [█(CH_3.CO.COOH @(Pyruvic acid) )□(█(→┴(Decarboxylase )@TPP) )█( CH_3 CHO + [email protected](Acetaldehyde) )]×2 In the second step acetaldehyde is reduced to alcohol by using NADH_2.NADH_2 is re-oxidised and recycled back to glycolysis. [CH_3 CHO +NADH+H^+ □(→┴(Dehydrogenase ) ) C_2 H_5 OH +NAD^+ ]×2 Thus in this reductive dacarboxylative process of alcohol fermentation, both molecules of NADH_2 formed in glycolysis are used up and thus there is a loss 6 ATP per molecule of glucose and net ATP production in anaerobic respiration remains to be 2 only. (ii) Lactic Acid Fermentation: It is that fermentation where sugar is converted into lactic acid. [█(CH_3.CO.COOH @(Pyruvic acid) )+NADH+H^+ □(█(→┴(Dehydrogenase )@FMN,Zn^(++) ) )█(CH_3 CHOH COOH + NAD^[email protected](Lactic acid) )]×2 In dairy industry, lactose sugar of milk is converted into lactic acid by bacteria Lactobacillus acidi, making milk sour in taste. This lactic acid causes curdling. During strenuous exercise, lactic acid is produced in voluntary muscles of humans. This accumulation of lactic acid in muscles causes fatigue and cramps. During rest when oxygen supply is restored lactic acid is oxidised into glycogen or glucose and finally to pyruvic acid in liver by reverse anaerobic glycolysis or Cori cycle. Cancer cells deep within tumour survive by lactic acid fermentation. (iii) Butyric Acid Fermentation: It occurs in butter by acid bacteria (Bacillus butyricus and Clostridium butyricum) and makes it sour and foul smelled. These bacteria convert hexose sugar and lactic acid into butyric acid. Pyruvic acid + NADH_2 □(→┴( ) ) C_4 H_8 O_2 + CO_2 + NAD^+ + H_2 (iv) Acetic Acid Fermentation: It requires oxygen and is carried out by bacteria like Acetobacter aceti. It is completed in two steps. In the first step, glucose in converted into alcohol anaerobically and in second step, alcohol is oxidised into acetic acid using O_2 C_6 H_12 O_6 □(→┴( ) ) 2C_2 H_5 OH + 2CO_2 C_2 H_5 OH+O_2 →┴( A.aceti ) CH_3 COOH +H_2 O Acetic acid Baking and brewery industries are totally dependent upon fermentation by yeast (Saccharomyces). For more such resources go to https://goo.gl/Eh96EY Website: https://www.learnpedia.in/
Views: 2665 Learnpedia
Glycolysis Overview Animation for Cellular Respiration
 
01:22
cellular respiration I. Energy flow & chemical cycling a. Autotrophs -- producers i. Solar energy à chemical energy b. Heterotrophs -- consumers i. Live off chemical energy c. Photosynthesis: i. Ingredients: 1. CO2 and H2O ii. Products: 1. Glucose and O2 d. Cellular respiration i. Plants & animals ii. In mitochondria iii. Waste products are ingredients for photosynthesis (& vice-versa) II. Cellular respiration a. Series of reactions that i. Are oxidations ii. Are also dehydrogenations 1. Lost electrons are accompanied by hydrogen ions (protons) b. Therefore, what is actually lost is a hydrogen atom (1 electron, 1 proton) c. Cells harvest energy by breaking bonds and shifting electrons from one molecule to another i. Aerobic respiration - final electron acceptor is oxygen (O) ii. Anaerobic respiration - final electron acceptor is inorganic molecule other than oxygen(N, etc) iii. Fermentation - final electron acceptor is an organic molecule (analogous to ^, no O)(lipid) d. Glucose = fuel e. Many steps f. 1 glucose may = 32 ATP! (usually 30 or so molecules) g. Hydrogen transfer h. Redox reaction (*******KNOW THIS FORMULA on slide pic) i. Glucose is oxidized ii. Oxygen is reduced III. ATP production a. The goal of cellular respiration is to produce ATP i. Energy is released from oxidation reaction in the form of electrons ii. Electrons are shuttled by electron carriers (e.g. NAD+) to an electron transport chain iii. Electron energy is converted to ATP IV. How cells make ATP a. Cells catabolize organic molecules and produce ATP in two ways: i. Substrate-level phosphorylation (transferring phosphate group from a substrate)(see slide) ii. Aerobic respiration V. 4 stages of cellular respiration a. Glycolysis i. Glucose à 2 pyruvate (~half glucoses) ii. 2 ATP iii. 2 NADH (electron carrier) b. Pyruvate oxidation i. 2 NADH c. Krebs cycle (aka citric acid cycle) i. 2 ATP ii. 6 NADH iii. 2 FADH2 d. Electron transport chain VI. Stage 1: glycolysis a. Enzymes found in cytosol b. Priming reactions i. 2 molecules of ATP invested ii. Glucose is phosphorylated twice c. Cleavage reactions i. One 6-carbon glucose broken into two 3-carbon sugar molecules d. Energy-harvesting reactions i. 3-carbon sugars à pyruvate ii. 4 ATP molecules produced directly (2 net ATP) iii. Electrons transferred to 2 NADH VII. Transporting electrons a. Electron path from glucose to oxygen b. Electron acceptors i. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide = NAD+ 1. NAD+ + 2H+ + 2e- à NADH + H+ ii. Flavin adenine dinucleotide = FAD(only used in Krebs) 1. FAD + 2H+ + 2e- à FADH2 c. Electron transport chain i. Stepwise transfer of electrons from one protein to another 1. Releases small amounts of energy with each transfer VIII. Recycling NADH a. As long as food molecules are available to be converted into glucose, a cell can produce ATP i. Continual ATP production results in accumulation of NADH and NAD+ depletion 1. NADH must be recycled into NAD+ a. With oxygen i. Aerobic respiration b. Without oxygen i. Anaerobic respiration ii. Fermentation IX. Pyruvate oxidation (see slide pic) a. For each pyruvate molecule i. NAD+ reduced to NADH ii. Pyruvate converted to acetic acid(loss of CO2) 1. Acetyl Coenzyme A (Acetyl CoA) a. coenzyme A 'escorts' acetic acid into krebs X. Running totals so far... (SEE SLIDE) a. Stage 3: Krebs cycle b. Occurs in the mitochondria c. Each acetyl CoA bonds to a 4-C "acceptor" molecule to form a 6-C product d. 6-C molecule is i. Oxidized (lose electron) 1. NADH ii. Decarboxylated (loss CO2) 1. CO2 e. 5-C molecule is oxidized & decarboxylated again i. NADH & CO2 f. Some energy used to transfer a phosphate group to an ADP molecule to form ATP directly g. 4-C molecule is oxidized i. NADH ii. FADH2 h. 4-C molecule is recycled XI. Running totals so far... (SEE SLIDE) XII. Harvesting energy a. Series of redox reactions (the steps) i. Release energy ii. Repositioning electrons closer to oxygen atoms XIII. Stage 4: electron transport chain a. NADH & FADH2 transport electrons from food to transport chains b. ETCs use this energy to pump H+ ions across mitochondrial membrane c. O2 pulls those electrons down the chain, causing release of H+ ions d. H+ ions flow into ATP synthase i. Chemiosmosis e. Each pair of electrons brought by NADH i. ~2.5 ATP f. Each pair of electrons brought by FADH2 i. ~1.5 ATP
Views: 29393 Dongem Biology
Photosynthesis:End Products | Adaptation Of Photosynthesis In Leaves | Conversion Of Starch | Part 5
 
07:11
Biology Grade 10 (Part II) : High School Learning; Photosynthesis:End Products | Adaptation Of Photosynthesis In Leaves | Conversion Of Starch | Part 5; Photosynthesis (Contd...) ~ End Products of Photosynthesis ~ Conversion of Starch and Other Substances From Glucose : Structure of Sucrose : Structure of Starch : Structure of Cellulose ~ Adaptations For Photosynthesis In Leaves Video by Edupedia World (www.edupediaworld.com), Free Online Education; Download our App : https://goo.gl/1b6LBg Click here, https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLJumA3phskPG-iFhhC71FBJCIEsDqSCL7 for more videos on Biology Grade 10 (Part II); All Rights Reserved.
Views: 341 Edupedia World
Metabolism & Nutrition, Part 2: Crash Course A&P #37
 
10:07
If you're like us, you love the sound of a brunch buffet. But not everything you eat at that glorious buffet is going to be turned into energy. Your body has to work with different forms of food in different ways. In this episode of Crash Course Anatomy & Physiology, Hank takes us through more about our metabolism including cellular respiration, atp, glycogenesis, and how insulin regulates our blood sugar levels. Anatomy of Hank Poster: http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-anatomy-and-physiology-poster -- Table of Contents Cellular Respiration converts glucose into ATP 2:03 Glycogenesis converts glucose to glycogen 3:26 Lipogenesis converts glucose into triglycerides 5:58 Insulin regulates blood sugar levels 5:22 *** Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Fatima Iqbal, Penelope Flagg, Eugenia Karlson, Alex S, Jirat, Tim Curwick, Christy Huddleston, Eric Kitchen, Moritz Schmidt, Today I Found Out, Avi Yashchin, Chris Peters, Eric Knight, Jacob Ash, Simun Niclasen, Jan Schmid, Elliot Beter, Sandra Aft, SR Foxley, Ian Dundore, Daniel Baulig, Jason A Saslow, Robert Kunz, Jessica Wode, Steve Marshall, Anna-Ester Volozh, Christian, Caleb Weeks, Jeffrey Thompson, James Craver, and Markus Persson -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 669423 CrashCourse
Krebs Cycle Made Simple - TCA Cycle
 
05:00
How to remember krebs cycle FOREVER : https://youtu.be/RnL71vnCMCY Follow on Instagram for the Flashcards : https://www.instagram.com/medsimplified/ Follow on FaceBook : https://goo.gl/syceUO BUY USING AFFILIATE LINKS : AMAZON US--- https://goo.gl/XSJtTx AMAZON India http://goo.gl/QsUhku FLIPKART http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN FLIPKART MOBILE APP http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN Krebs cycle The citric acid cycle – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle[1][2] – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids as well as the reducing agent NADH that is used in numerous other biochemical reactions. Its central importance to many biochemical pathways suggests that it was one of the earliest established components of cellular metabolism and may have originated abiogenically.[3][4] The name of this metabolic pathway is derived from citric acid (a type of tricarboxylic acid) that is consumed and then regenerated by this sequence of reactions to complete the cycle. In addition, the cycle consumes acetate (in the form of acetyl-CoA) and water, reduces NAD+ to NADH, and produces carbon dioxide as a waste byproduct. The NADH generated by the TCA cycle is fed into the oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport) pathway. The net result of these two closely linked pathways is the oxidation of nutrients to produce usable chemical energy in the form of ATP. In eukaryotic cells, the citric acid cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion. In prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria which lack mitochondria, the TCA reaction sequence is performed in the cytosol with the proton gradient for ATP production being across the cell's surface (plasma membrane) rather than the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. wATCH aGAIN: https://youtu.be/ubzw64PQPqM sUBSCRIBE : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOmrniWfKi-uCD6Oh6fqhgw -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- CHECK OUT NEWEST VIDEO: "Nucleic acids - DNA and RNA structure " https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lZRAShqft0 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 846492 MEDSimplified
Online tutorial on Adenosine triphosphate(ATP) - Biology
 
06:28
Expertsmind: - Adenosine triphosphate is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme, often known the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. It is one of the end products of photophosphorylation, fermentation and cellular respiration and used by structural and enzymes proteins in many cellular processes, including biosynthetic reactions, cell division and motility. One molecule of ATP contains three phosphate groups, and it is produced by a wide range of enzymes, including ATP syntheses, from adenosine monophosphate (AMP) or adenosine diphosphate ADP and various phosphate group donors. Oxidative phosphorylation, substrate-level phosphorylation in cellular respiration, and photophosphorylation in photosynthesis are three main mechanisms of ATP biosynthesis.
Views: 741 Expertsmind
Cellular Respiration Music Video - Stitches
 
03:34
Understanding Cellular Respiration through a music video. This video allows you to study the process without getting bored. When you stick it to your mind, you’ll accidentally memorize all the lyrics. The music Stitches by Shawn Mendez with the lyrics of Jovie Castañaday will give you a last song syndrome. Material used in filming and editing: Iphone 6 plus Imovie Videoleap Wesing Lyrics: I know all of us needs energy The main product we need is ATP Some cells perform distinct function It is the process called cell respiration The food we eat is the main provider Of the chemical compound our body needs As it flows through the way of our bloodstream Breakdown And watch it Undergo digestion To fit in Layers of cell membrane Oxidation of glucose occurs Containing charged electrons Circling cytoplasm Ad wait for ATP's to share in It's called the glycolysis process that maks ATP products The energy investment phase 2atp molecules transfer their energy And then the new molecule splitsnow harvesting phase will taje place ATP, NADH Then they enter inside mitochondria Two molecules of pyruvate Nadh Nadh will form carbon dioxide Pyruvate makes COA Circling through the membrane And forming CO2 and water It's also known as the krebs cycle This process will be doubles Electron transport chain The energy-carrying membrane Trasforms compound into ATP The needed energy of our body Proteins in the chain Pump hydrogen in the membrane Straight into the place called ATP synthase (END PROCESS) Oxygen is reduced Byproduct water was produced Results in energy production To be used by mitochondrion The main goal is to make ATP Energy to be used by our body Key for life preservation It's the cell respiration
Views: 56 Kenneth Eugenio
Cell Respiration
 
03:22
Cellular respiration rap This is a rap about Cellular respiration A process that deserves our utmost adoration It keeps our cells stocked with energy In the form of a molecule, ATP The equation calls for oxygen, and a little bit of sugar Without these it won't work, it does not occur. The products are water, ATP and the gas CO2 Now let me break it down step by step for you The first step is glycolysis and it occurs in the cytosol And in humans it does not require oxygen at all It takes your sugar and breaks it down to 3C pyruvate Products include 2 ATP and NADH- its reduced state The next step forms the 2C compound Acetyl CoA Pyruvate enters the mitochondrion to get this underway It's going to lose one carbon, and lose some mass With the help of enzymes you get NADH, and CO2 gas. The Acetyl CoA moves on now, to the citric acid cycle A complex process we won't cover in full The products are CO2, NADH, and FADH2 During this step 2 more ATP are accrued Now the stage is all set for the last step But before we advance I must digress And explain a few things in a more detail, for clarification Before we've been making ATP via substrate level phosphorylation That won't be the case in the next step so keep that straight The Electron donators are FADH2 and NADH Which leads us to the next part, oxidative phosphorylation It can get confusing, so pay close attention This step occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane It requires our electron donors and hydrogen ion to start the chain NADH and FADH2 donate electrons to carriers on the inside The electrons are carried up the membrane, and energy they do provide This energy causes hydrogen to be pumped out against its gradient And while the electron loses energy and makes its descent Hydrogen wants to get back in- to equilibrium And ATP synthase allows it to come Back inside the membrane, the synthase begins to turn Spinning the wheel, and giving a huge ATP return This electron trasnport chain and synthase make up oxidative phosphorylation And it's your body's cells' veritable power station When the electron has finished its journey, reached the end It finds the final electron acceptor, oxygen This finds a hydrogen, and makes an H20 Didn't understand before, well now you know
Views: 457 Sccrplyrmatt
Aerobic Cellular Respiration
 
09:14
More Information on the Aerobic Cellular Respiration It is a Process that extracts energy from food but it must have oxygen present. The energy that is extracted from food is then used to Synthesize ATP From ADP. The ATP can then supply energy directly to the cells. As described in the following equation: There are 5 Topics of Aerobic Cellular Respiration that I Am going to cover on this poster they are Glycolysis, Pyruvate Oxidation, Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle), Electron Transport Chain , Chemiosmosis. Glycolysis Steps 1-10 Detailing the reaction. Pyruvate Oxidation There are 3 Parts to Pyruvate Oxidation - it is the second stage of Aerobic Cellular Respiration; The overall purpose of Pyruvate Oxidation is for Pyruvate to be oxidized to acetyl-CoA and CO2. It is located in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and in the cytosol of prokaryotes. Over the duration of Pyruvate Oxidation, electrons are continually removed from pyruvate until only carbon dioxide remains. So essentially your cells are converting pyruvate into carbon dioxide using two different oxidation steps. Step One: A Single Carboxyl is taken from a pyruvate, this then releases a molecule of carbon dioxide into the surrounding area. As a result of this you get a two carbon hydroxyethyl group and it is bound to the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase. This step will happen twice for every molecule of glucose metabolized. Step Two: The hydroxyethyl group is Oxidized into an acetal group and electrons are removed from an NAD+ to an NADH. (Will be used later to generate ATP) Step Three: The Enyme-bound acetyl group is transferred into COA, this then produces a Molecule of acetyl CoA. Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) OverView During the year of 1937, Sir Hans Krebs, (Biochemist from the university of Sheffield in England). came across a stage of Aerobic respiration that had not previously been discovered that consisted of eight catalyzed enzyme reactions. he then dubbed this cycle the Krebs Cycle; he then received a Nobel Prize for his efforts in1953. It was later renamed to be the Citric Acid Cycle. All of the reactions that occur in the Citric acid cycle take place in the mitochondria. It is a key metabolic pathway, the reactions are performed by 8 enzymes, they completely oxidize acetate, to form Acetyl-CoA, and two molecules of carbon dioxide and water. The reaction also converts NAD+ into NADH. The cycle begins with the transfer of two carbon acetyl group from a acetyl-CoA to oxaloacetate to form Citrate Then, the citrate goes though a series of chemical transformations and reactions, in the end losing two carboxyl groups as CO2. The CO2 lost, originated from oxaloacetate, it didn't come directly from acetyl-CoA; first the carbons where given by acetyl-CoA to the carbon backbone oxaloacetate. the majority of the of the energy made by the oxidative steps of the citric acid cycle are held as NAD+, later forming NADH. for each acetyl group that enters the Citric Acid Cycle, 3 molecules of NADH are produced. This NADH can then be converted to ATP later on. During this step electrons are also transferred to electron acceptors, forming QH2. At the end of the cycle oxaloacetate has been recreated and the cycle continues The Electron Transport Chain & Chemiosmosis.. Many Many years have been dedicated to the remarkable study of the mitochondria. it formats ATP in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The Electron Transport Chain & Chemiosmosis Overview The ETC is the most productive step in cellular respiration it produces 34 ATP for every one molecules of glucose. the process consists of the movement of electrons from high energy to low energy that makes the proton gradient. The proton gradient Powers ATP production, also the electron transport chain can only proceed when oxygen is available. Conclusions At the of Cellular respiration we can count the number of ATP produced over the entire cycle. Given that we completely oxidize one of the molecules of glucose to CO2 and H2O and also assuming that we get the entire H+ gradient produced over the electron transfer chain, we get a total of 10 NADH, 10 H+ and two FADH2 from glycolysis, pyruvate oxidization and the Citric Acid Cycle. when this is converted into ATP you get 38 ATP out as a product. It is then converted into 1178kj/mol, this is 41% of the energy glucose could produce (it has the potential to produce 2870 KJ/mol) but all of the rest of the energy was lost in the form of heat. It may not sound like a lot of energy, but, for example a car can only convert 25% of the energy in its fuel into actual motion, so Aerobic Cellular Respiration is relatively efficient.
Views: 1711 Dylan Alsop
What is the final product of glycolysis?
 
00:13
This improves the knowledge of the children indirectly as they never know that they are learning. -
Enter the name of the three non-stop energy?
 
00:38
enter the name of the three non-stop energy, cellular respiration formula, passive transport, what is cellular respiration, does facilitated diffusion require energy, glucose transporter, what are the products of glycolysis, what does the cell membrane do, what are the products of cellular respiration, transport across cell membrane, does osmosis require energy, is osmosis active or passive, define passive transport, why is cellular respiration important, where does cellular respiration occur, examples of passive transport, active transport vs passive transport, cellular respiration products, cell diffusion, facilitated diffusion example, active vs passive transport, cellular respiration occurs in, what does cell membrane do, diffusion in cells, is diffusion active or passive, 3 stages of cellular respiration, what is diffusion in cells, celluar respiration, example of facilitated diffusion, cell transport, passive transport definition biology, facilitated diffusion requires, products of cellular respiration, cellular respiration process, cellular transport, process of cellular respiration, glycolysis products, cellular respiration steps, glucose molecule, steps of cellular respiration, the process of cellular respiration, what is passive transport, active transport examples, stages of cellular respiration, aerobic cellular respiration, products of glycolysis, does diffusion require energy, passive transport examples, conversion of glucose to glycogen, the movement of water across a membrane is termed, active transport across cell membrane, osmosis diffusion and active transport, what is the cellular respiration, what breaks down glucose, water molecules and small ions enter a cell through, what is the overall reaction for cellular respiration, what type of transport is osmosis, diffusion transport, cellular respiration explained, does osmosis use energy, what substances are produced by cellular respiration, diffusion and active transport, to enter or leave a cell substances must pass through, how many atp does the krebs cycle yield, where is cellular respiration located, movement in and out of cells, what is the site of cellular respiration, transport through cell membrane, to perform active transport cells use, movement of a molecule against a concentration gradient is, what type of reaction is cellular respiration, what does plasma membrane do, describe the process of glycolysis, final product of glycolysis, is glucose an enzyme, transport through the cell membrane, what type of molecule is atp, cells use active transport proteins to, what are the proteins used in active transport called, what is the waste product of cellular respiration, where is the energy stored in glucose, end products of cellular respiration, phases of cellular respiration, diffusion cell membrane, what assists the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion, why is diffusion important to cells, where does the glucose for respiration come from, how does facilitated diffusion work, what type of molecule is glucose, who does cellular respiration, 4 steps of cellular respiration, how is glucose absorbed, atp in cellular respiration, what is the overall purpose of cellular respiration, which substance is needed to begin the process of glycolysis, active transport can move substances against their, parts of cellular respiration, why do cells need to use transport proteins to function, how many atp molecules are produced in cellular respiration, what are the 3 stages of cellular respiration, which process uses acetyl coa as a reactant, cellular respiration atp, diffusion across a membrane, during cellular respiration, which step in cellular respiration happens first, the function of cellular respiration is to, concentration gradient example, what is atp used for in cells, where does cellular respiration happen, which process requires no energy from the cell, what is a product of cellular respiration, does osmosis require atp, cellular respiration mitochondria, cell membrane example, what are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process, active passive transport, does facilitated diffusion use energy, where does the first stage of cellular respiration glycolysis occur, where is energy stored in glucose, cellular respiration produces, how do molecules get through the cell membrane, is osmosis passive, what is the main purpose of cellular respiration, how do cells use the energy released from atp, overall reaction for cellular respiration, why do cells need glucose, cell membrane diffusion, what are products of cellular respiration, which is a type of passive transport, how is facilitated diffusion different from active transport, how many atp are produced in cellular respiration, oxygen in cellular respiration,
Views: 10 Question & Answer
CBSE X Life Processes - Respiration in Human Beings
 
04:06
Next Education is an end-to-end academic solution provider to schools. The various solutions are adequately provided to the specific needs of the customers. Next Education has created technology driven, classroom-friendly and learner-centric products as part of our academic solution program. These programs are transforming the lives of students across India in various cities. There are around 6 million students studying in 12,000 partner schools. We have 12,000 learning modules that account for more than 1,000 hours of classroom teaching at school and 10+2 level. Each of our modules created by our in-house content development team has been designed using contemporary learning design principles and has undergone rigorous testing on and off the field. We also have products that are particularly learner-centric and those that make teaching easier and more effective for the teachers. Follow Next Education India Pvt Ltd on Facebook - https://goo.gl/L0fUBD Twitter - https://goo.gl/SlNi3G LinkedIn - https://goo.gl/CmhifJ YouTube - https://goo.gl/gFbQz8 Google Plus - https://goo.gl/uRMggH Visit us @ http://nexteducation.in/
Views: 375034 Next Education India
Overview of cellular respiration | Cellular respiration | Biology | Khan Academy
 
13:11
Overview of cellular respiration. Includes glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid (Krebs) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/glycolysis/v/glycolysis?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/intro-to-cellular-respiration/v/oxidation-and-reduction-in-cellular-respiration?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82qE46vcTn7lP4tK_RHhdg?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 220585 Khan Academy
Respiratory System - Introduction | Biology for All | FuseSchool
 
03:08
Your respiratory system is a system in humans that is designed to extract oxygen from the air so we can use it in respiration around the body and at the same time get rid of carbon dioxide gas into the air which is the waste product from respiration. oxygen gas travels through the respiratory system, as you inhale, the molecule is drawn in through the mouth or the nose, it goes into the back of the throat where it enters a tube called the trachea. The tractor or windpipe has special rings of cartilage to keep it open at all times so you can breathe if you are lying down asleep or on a trampoline. The oxygen molecule now travels down the trachea and they will go into either the left or the right lung via a tube called the bronchus. This bronchus then splits into smaller tubes called bronchioles and finally the oxygen molecule will make its way into a tiny air sac called an alveolar, these alveoli are surrounded by tiny blood vessels called capillaries and the oxygen molecule now passes across from the air into the blood via a process of diffusion. At the same time the carbon dioxide molecule goes the other way coming out of the blood and into the alveoli as you exhale. As you exhale the carbon dioxide will take the journey back up the bronchioles a bronchus the trachea and out of the mouth. This happens to millions of molecules with each breath have about 300 million alveoli in each lung. On average, you breathe like this 12 to 16 times a minute. Unlike your digestive system the respiratory system is a dead end. If something bad gets into your lungs it's very hard to get it back out. As usual the body has an answer to look very closely at the cells lining the tracker and the bronchi some of them have tiny little hairs on called cilia and in between these cells are other cells called goblet cells that are secreting mucus. This mucus traps dirt dust and bacteria before entered the lungs. The cilia then what this mucus up into the mouth where it can be swallowed to be killed by your stomach acid. There are many things that can go wrong with your lungs such as asthma, pneumonia and diseases associated with smoking such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. However, if you have a problem a doctor may perform a bronchoscopy. This is when they put a tube with a light and the camera on it into your Airways and look for signs of inflammation or bleeding. SUBSCRIBE to the FuseSchool YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. VISIT us at www.fuseschool.org, where all of our videos are carefully organised into topics and specific orders, and to see what else we have on offer. Comment, like and share with other learners. You can both ask and answer questions, and teachers will get back to you. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find all of our Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRnpKjHpFyg&list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Find all of our Biology videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjkHzEVcyrE&list=PLW0gavSzhMlQYSpKryVcEr3ERup5SxHl0 Find all of our Maths videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJq_cdz_L00&list=PLW0gavSzhMlTyWKCgW1616v3fIywogoZQ Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the FuseSchool platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]