Go to http://Raceforretirement.com and see how the action gap affects you.
Follow all of our Peru adventures on this playlist: http://bit.ly/SmartPeru
↓ More info and sources below ↓
Special thanks to Rainforest Expeditions for hosting us! Visit http://www.perunature.com/
Wilson, E.O. "The Diversity of Life" http://eowilsonfoundation.org/the-diversity-of-life/
Eichhorn, Markus P. "Latitudinal gradients." Natural Systems: The organisation of life: 249-264.
"Tropical Ecology" (textbook) by John Kircher (2011) http://press.princeton.edu/titles/9486.html
Condamine, Fabien L., et al. "What causes latitudinal gradients in species diversity? Evolutionary processes and ecological constraints on swallowtail biodiversity." Ecology letters 15.3 (2012): 267-277.
Jenkins, Clinton N., Stuart L. Pimm, and Lucas N. Joppa. "Global patterns of terrestrial vertebrate diversity and conservation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110.28 (2013): E2602-E2610.
Mannion, Philip D., et al. "The latitudinal biodiversity gradient through deep time." Trends in ecology & evolution 29.1 (2014): 42-50.
Mittelbach, Gary G., et al. "Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography." Ecology letters 10.4 (2007): 315-331.
Wiens, John J., et al. "Evolutionary and ecological causes of the latitudinal diversity gradient in hylid frogs: treefrog trees unearth the roots of high tropical diversity." The American Naturalist 168.5 (2006): 579-596.
It's Okay To Be Smart is written and hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Have an idea for an episode or an amazing science question you want answered? Leave a comment or check us out at the links below!
Produced by PBS Digital Studios
Music via APM
Stock images from SciencePhoto http://www.sciencephoto.com/ and Shutterstock http://www.shutterstock.com
Werner Herzog on the jungle: "Kinski always says it's full of erotic elements. I don't see it so much erotic. I see it more full of obscenity. It's just - Nature here is vile and base. I wouldn't see anything erotical here. I would see fornication and asphyxiation and choking and fighting for survival and... growing and... just rotting away. Of course, there's a lot of misery. But it is the same misery that is all around us. The trees here are in misery, and the birds are in misery. I don't think they - they sing. They just screech in pain. It's an unfinished country. It's still prehistorical. The only thing that is lacking is - is the dinosaurs here. It's like a curse weighing on an entire landscape. And whoever... goes too deep into this has his share of this curse. So we are cursed with what we are doing here. It's a land that God, if he exists has - has created in anger. It's the only land where - where creation is unfinished yet. Taking a close look at - at what's around us there - there is some sort of a harmony. It is the harmony of... overwhelming and collective murder. And we in comparison to the articulate vileness and baseness and obscenity of all this jungle - Uh, we in comparison to that enormous articulation - we only sound and look like badly pronounced and half-finished sentences out of a stupid suburban... novel... a cheap novel. We have to become humble in front of this overwhelming misery and overwhelming fornication... overwhelming growth and overwhelming lack of order. Even the - the stars up here in the - in the sky look like a mess. There is no harmony in the universe. We have to get acquainted to this idea that there is no real harmony as we have conceived it. But when I say this, I say this all full of admiration for the jungle. It is not that I hate it, I love it. I love it very much. But I love it against my better judgment."
This totally leaves out the human factor. Yuval Noah Harari neatly describes how there was a wide variety of species all around the globe but as humans (or actually their predecessors) only lived in Africa, only those species could adapt to them. The moment humanity went out to the world it ensured the extinction of a high amount of species wherever they went. Australia is a great example for this due to our late arrival there...
Tambopata National Reserve, Peru
A breathtaking tropical rainforest located between Cuzco and Bolivia, the Tambopata National Reserve in the Peruvian Amazon is one of the world’s most biologically diverse areas. Nearly one-third the size of Costa Rica, Tambopata has more species of birds (595) and butterflies (more than 1,200) than any place of similar size on earth, reported The New York Times. "Environmentalists claim that the [reserve's] great diversity of wildlife is due to its location at the confluence of lowland Amazon forest with three other ecosystems," according to an article in the Times. "At least 13 endangered species are found here, including the jaguar, giant otter, ocelot, harpy eagle, and giant armadillo." The reserve is also home to the world's largest known mineral clay lick, where hundreds of parrots and macaws of up to 15 species congregate daily to ingest the detoxifying clay.
I wish he would have talked a little more about the differences on the metaphorical views of the tropics as a “cradle” vs “museum” both are fascinating, they share similar views but are different from each other.
energy field, electromagnetic field of the earth from north pole to south pole meets at the equator... the merging of all duality ( hot - cold, positive - negative, feminine - masculine etc ) reach the point of equilibrium and the harmony creates living organisms... that's why the first live form, the first civilisation must came from the equator and spread out from there...
Thanks for the series. I have been in the rainforest at Tambopata in Peru. A relay great place to experience the jungle and its life. Even in the rain season it was sun every day. Keep a good repellent on you and take some antidote(medic) before venture there. Trees smells like garlic, silent sunset, wake up call from howling apes, crickets sounds like chainsaw.. Btw the grey tarantella (2,12 min. in the video) is huge but not poisonous.
Great video. But You know i am beginning to hate that word diversity nowadays and the amount of times he says it is unreal. That word is starting to sound toxic.Just wondering did Mr Soros sponsor that video.I could be wrong.
Interesting that we might be able to extrapolate this theory when searching for life on other planets ,not only finding planets in the habitable zone but situated at the right angle and axis to a star or star cluster.
Following the presenter's logic, a theory of faster evolution in the tropics doesn't make sense. It appears it should be exactly the reverse because the natural selection drivers for species adaptation aren't really active since the environment is stable and conditions are fairly constant in the tropics... or am I missing something?
This was great. Only one issue. It has been proven that plants do not engage in competitions, they literally communicate with one another and work together. check out ted talk "how trees talk". Thanks for the video.
Any effort to "save the rainforests" without respecting the rights of indigenous peoples is doomed to fail:
From least greatest (10) to greatest greatest (1), the poems in this list are limited to ones originally written in the English language and which are under 50 lines, excluding poems like Homer’s Iliad and Edgar Allan Poe’s “Raven.” Each poem is followed by some brief analysis. Many good poems and poets had to be left off of this list. In the comments section below, feel free to make additions or construct your own lists. You can also submit analyses of classic poetry to [email protected] They will be considered for publication on this website.
10. “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost (1874-1963)
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth;
Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same,
And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back.
I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I— I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference.
Meaning of the Poem.
This poem deals with that big noble question of “How to make a difference in the world?” On first reading, it tells us that the choice one makes really does matter, ending: “I took the one less traveled by, / And that has made all the difference.”